26 U.S.C. § 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

Cite as:26 U.S.C. § 40
Currency:Current through P.L. 116-21 (6/12/2019)
 
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(a) General rule

For purposes of section 38, the alcohol fuels credit determined under this section for the taxable year is an amount equal to the sum of-

(1) the alcohol mixture credit,

(2) the alcohol credit,

(3) in the case of an eligible small ethanol producer, the small ethanol producer credit, plus

(4) the second generation biofuel producer credit.

(b) Definition of alcohol mixture credit, alcohol credit, and small ethanol producer credit

For purposes of this section, and except as provided in subsection (h)-

(1) Alcohol mixture credit

(A) In general

The alcohol mixture credit of any taxpayer for any taxable year is 60 cents for each gallon of alcohol used by the taxpayer in the production of a qualified mixture.

(B) Qualified mixture

The term "qualified mixture" means a mixture of alcohol and gasoline or of alcohol and a special fuel which-

(i) is sold by the taxpayer producing such mixture to any person for use as a fuel, or

(ii) is used as a fuel by the taxpayer producing such mixture.

(C) Sale or use must be in trade or business, etc.

Alcohol used in the production of a qualified mixture shall be taken into account-

(i) only if the sale or use described in subparagraph (B) is in a trade or business of the taxpayer, and

(ii) for the taxable year in which such sale or use occurs.

(D) Casual off-farm production not eligible

No credit shall be allowed under this section with respect to any casual off-farm production of a qualified mixture.

(2) Alcohol credit

(A) In general

The alcohol credit of any taxpayer for any taxable year is 60 cents for each gallon of alcohol which is not in a mixture with gasoline or a special fuel (other than any denaturant) and which during the taxable year-

(i) is used by the taxpayer as a fuel in a trade or business, or

(ii) is sold by the taxpayer at retail to a person and placed in the fuel tank of such person's vehicle.

(B) User credit not to apply to alcohol sold at retail

No credit shall be allowed under subparagraph (A)(i) with respect to any alcohol which was sold in a retail sale described in subparagraph (A)(ii).

(3) Smaller credit for lower proof alcohol

In the case of any alcohol with a proof which is at least 150 but less than 190, paragraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) shall be applied by substituting "45 cents" for "60 cents".

(4) Small ethanol producer credit

(A) In general

The small ethanol producer credit of any eligible small ethanol producer for any taxable year is 10 cents for each gallon of qualified ethanol fuel production of such producer.

(B) Qualified ethanol fuel production

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "qualified ethanol fuel production" means any alcohol which is ethanol which is produced by an eligible small ethanol producer, and which during the taxable year-

(i) is sold by such producer to another person-

(I) for use by such other person in the production of a qualified mixture in such other person's trade or business (other than casual off-farm production),

(II) for use by such other person as a fuel in a trade or business, or

(III) who sells such ethanol at retail to another person and places such ethanol in the fuel tank of such other person, or

(ii) is used or sold by such producer for any purpose described in clause (i).

(C) Limitation

The qualified ethanol fuel production of any producer for any taxable year shall not exceed 15,000,000 gallons (determined without regard to any qualified second generation biofuel production).

(D) Additional distillation excluded

The qualified ethanol fuel production of any producer for any taxable year shall not include any alcohol which is purchased by the producer and with respect to which such producer increases the proof of the alcohol by additional distillation.

(5) Adding of denaturants not treated as mixture

The adding of any denaturant to alcohol shall not be treated as the production of a mixture.

(6) Second generation biofuel producer credit

(A) In general

The second generation biofuel producer credit of any taxpayer is an amount equal to the applicable amount for each gallon of qualified second generation biofuel production.

(B) Applicable amount

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the applicable amount means $1.01, except that such amount shall, in the case of second generation biofuel which is alcohol, be reduced by the sum of-

(i) the amount of the credit in effect for such alcohol under subsection (b)(1) (without regard to subsection (b)(3)) at the time of the qualified second generation biofuel production, plus

(ii) in the case of ethanol, the amount of the credit in effect under subsection (b)(4) at the time of such production.

(C) Qualified second generation biofuel production

For purposes of this section, the term "qualified second generation biofuel production" means any second generation biofuel which is produced by the taxpayer, and which during the taxable year-

(i) is sold by the taxpayer to another person-

(I) for use by such other person in the production of a qualified second generation biofuel mixture in such other person's trade or business (other than casual off-farm production),

(II) for use by such other person as a fuel in a trade or business, or

(III) who sells such second generation biofuel at retail to another person and places such second generation biofuel in the fuel tank of such other person, or

(ii) is used or sold by the taxpayer for any purpose described in clause (i).

The qualified second generation biofuel production of any taxpayer for any taxable year shall not include any alcohol which is purchased by the taxpayer and with respect to which such producer increases the proof of the alcohol by additional distillation.

(D) Qualified second generation biofuel mixture

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "qualified second generation biofuel mixture" means a mixture of second generation biofuel and gasoline or of second generation biofuel and a special fuel which-

(i) is sold by the person producing such mixture to any person for use as a fuel, or

(ii) is used as a fuel by the person producing such mixture.

(E) Second generation biofuel

For purposes of this paragraph-

(i) In general

The term "second generation biofuel" means any liquid fuel which-

(I) is derived by, or from, qualified feedstocks, and

(II) meets the registration requirements for fuels and fuel additives established by the Environmental Protection Agency under section 211 of the Clean Air Act ( 42 U.S.C. 7545 ).

(ii) Exclusion of low-proof alcohol

The term "second generation biofuel" shall not include any alcohol with a proof of less than 150. The determination of the proof of any alcohol shall be made without regard to any added denaturants.

(iii) Exclusion of certain fuels

The term "second generation biofuel" shall not include any fuel if-

(I) more than 4 percent of such fuel (determined by weight) is any combination of water and sediment,

(II) the ash content of such fuel is more than 1 percent (determined by weight), or

(III) such fuel has an acid number greater than 25.

(F) Qualified feedstock

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "qualified feedstock" means-

(i) any lignocellulosic or hemicellulosic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, and

(ii) any cultivated algae, cyanobacteria, or lemna.

(G) Special rules for algae

In the case of fuel which is derived by, or from, feedstock described in subparagraph (F)(ii) and which is sold by the taxpayer to another person for refining by such other person into a fuel which meets the requirements of subparagraph (E)(i)(II) and the refined fuel is not excluded under subparagraph (E)(iii)-

(i) such sale shall be treated as described in subparagraph (C)(i),

(ii) such fuel shall be treated as meeting the requirements of subparagraph (E)(i)(II) and as not being excluded under subparagraph (E)(iii) in the hands of such taxpayer, and

(iii) except as provided in this subparagraph, such fuel (and any fuel derived from such fuel) shall not be taken into account under subparagraph (C) with respect to the taxpayer or any other person.

(H) Allocation of second generation biofuel producer credit to patrons of cooperative

Rules similar to the rules under subsection (g)(6) shall apply for purposes of this paragraph.

(I) Registration requirement

No credit shall be determined under this paragraph with respect to any taxpayer unless such taxpayer is registered with the Secretary as a producer of second generation biofuel under section 4101.

(J) Application of paragraph

(i) In general

This paragraph shall apply with respect to qualified second generation biofuel production after December 31, 2008, and before January 1, 2018.

(ii) No carryover to certain years after expiration

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