12 U.S.C. § 4617 - Authority over critically undercapitalized regulated entities
|Cite as:||12 U.S.C. § 4617|
|Currency:||Current through P.L. 116-158 (08/14/2020)|
(a) Appointment of the Agency as conservator or receiver
(1) In general
Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal or State law, the Director may appoint the Agency as conservator or receiver for a regulated entity in the manner provided under paragraph (2) or (4). All references to the conservator or receiver under this section are references to the Agency acting as conservator or receiver.
(2) Discretionary appointment
The Agency may, at the discretion of the Director, be appointed conservator or receiver for the purpose of reorganizing, rehabilitating, or winding up the affairs of a regulated entity.
(3) Grounds for discretionary appointment of conservator or receiver
The grounds for appointing conservator or receiver for any regulated entity under paragraph (2) are as follows:
(A) Assets insufficient for obligations
The assets of the regulated entity are less than the obligations of the regulated entity to its creditors and others.
(B) Substantial dissipation
Substantial dissipation of assets or earnings due to-
(i) any violation of any provision of Federal or State law; or
(ii) any unsafe or unsound practice.
(C) Unsafe or unsound condition
An unsafe or unsound condition to transact business.
(D) Cease and desist orders
Any willful violation of a cease and desist order that has become final.
Any concealment of the books, papers, records, or assets of the regulated entity, or any refusal to submit the books, papers, records, or affairs of the regulated entity, for inspection to any examiner or to any lawful agent of the Director.
(F) Inability to meet obligations
The regulated entity is likely to be unable to pay its obligations or meet the demands of its creditors in the normal course of business.
The regulated entity has incurred or is likely to incur losses that will deplete all or substantially all of its capital, and there is no reasonable prospect for the regulated entity to become adequately capitalized (as defined in section 4614(a)(1) of this title).
(H) Violations of law
Any violation of any law or regulation, or any unsafe or unsound practice or condition that is likely to-
(i) cause insolvency or substantial dissipation of assets or earnings; or
(ii) weaken the condition of the regulated entity.
The regulated entity, by resolution of its board of directors or its shareholders or members, consents to the appointment.
The regulated entity is undercapitalized or significantly undercapitalized (as defined in section 4614(a)(3) of this title), and-
(i) has no reasonable prospect of becoming adequately capitalized;
(ii) fails to become adequately capitalized, as required by-
(I) section 4615(a)(1) of this title with respect to a regulated entity; or
(II) section 4616(a)(1) of this title with respect to a significantly undercapitalized regulated entity;
(iii) fails to submit a capital restoration plan acceptable to the Agency within the time prescribed under section 4622 of this title; or
(iv) materially fails to implement a capital restoration plan submitted and accepted under section 4622 of this title.
(K) Critical undercapitalization
The regulated entity is critically undercapitalized, as defined in section 4614(a)(4) of this title.
(L) Money laundering
The Attorney General notifies the Director in writing that the regulated entity has been found guilty of a criminal offense under section 1956 or 1957 of title 18 or section 5322 or 5324 of title 31.
(4) Mandatory receivership
(A) In general
The Director shall appoint the Agency as receiver for a regulated entity if the Director determines, in writing, that-
(i) the assets of the regulated entity are, and during the preceding 60 calendar days have been, less than the obligations of the regulated entity to its creditors and others; or
(ii) the regulated entity is not, and during the preceding 60 calendar days has not been, generally paying the debts of the regulated entity (other than debts that are the subject of a bona fide dispute) as such debts become due.
(B) Periodic determination required for critically undercapitalized regulated entity
If a regulated entity is critically undercapitalized, the Director shall make a determination, in writing, as to whether the regulated entity meets the criteria specified in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A)-
(i) not later than 30 calendar days after the regulated entity initially becomes critically undercapitalized; and
(ii) at least once during each succeeding 30-calendar day period.
(C) Determination not required if receivership already in place
Subparagraph (B) does not apply with respect to a regulated entity in any period during which the Agency serves as receiver for the regulated entity.
(D) Receivership terminates conservatorship
The appointment of the Agency as receiver of a regulated entity under this section shall immediately terminate any conservatorship established for the regulated entity under this chapter.
(5) Judicial review
(A) In general
If the Agency is appointed conservator or receiver under this section, the regulated entity may, within 30 days of such appointment, bring an action in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of such regulated entity is located, or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for an order requiring the Agency to remove itself as conservator or receiver.
Upon the filing of an action under subparagraph (A), the court shall, upon the merits, dismiss such action or direct the Agency to remove itself as such conservator or receiver.
(6) Directors not liable for acquiescing in appointment of conservator or receiver
The members of the board of directors of a regulated entity shall not be liable to the shareholders or creditors of the regulated entity for acquiescing in or consenting in good faith to the appointment of the Agency as conservator or receiver for that regulated entity.
(7) Agency not subject to any other Federal agency
When acting as conservator or receiver, the Agency shall not be subject to the direction or supervision of any other agency of the United States or any State in the exercise of the rights, powers, and privileges of the Agency.
(b) Powers and duties of the Agency as conservator or receiver
(1) Rulemaking authority of the agency
The Agency may prescribe such regulations as the Agency determines to be appropriate regarding the conduct of conservatorships or receiverships.
(2) General powers
(A) Successor to regulated entity
The Agency shall, as conservator or receiver, and by operation of law, immediately succeed to-
(i) all rights, titles, powers, and privileges of the regulated entity, and of any stockholder, officer, or director of such regulated entity with respect to the regulated entity and the assets of the regulated entity; and
(ii) title to the books, records, and assets of any other legal custodian of such regulated entity.
(B) Operate the regulated entity
The Agency may, as conservator or receiver-
(i) take over the assets of and operate the regulated entity with all the powers of the shareholders, the directors, and the officers of the regulated entity and conduct all business of the regulated entity;
(ii) collect all obligations and money due the regulated entity;
(iii) perform all functions of the regulated entity in the name of the regulated entity which are consistent with the appointment as conservator or receiver;
(iv) preserve and conserve the assets and property of the regulated entity; and
(v) provide by contract for assistance in fulfilling any function, activity, action, or duty of the Agency as conservator or receiver.
(C) Functions of officers, directors, and shareholders of a regulated entity
The Agency may, by regulation or order, provide for the exercise of any function by any stockholder, director, or officer of any regulated entity for which the Agency has been named conservator or receiver.
(D) Powers as conservator
The Agency may, as conservator, take such action as may be-
(i) necessary to put the regulated entity in a sound and solvent condition; and
(ii) appropriate to carry on the business of the regulated entity and preserve and conserve the assets and property of the regulated entity.
(E) Additional powers as receiver
In any case in which the Agency is acting as receiver, the Agency shall place the regulated entity in liquidation and proceed to realize upon the assets of the regulated entity in such manner as the Agency deems appropriate, including through the sale of assets, the transfer of assets to a limited-life regulated entity established under subsection (i), or the exercise of any other rights or privileges granted to the Agency under this paragraph.
(F) Organization of new enterprise
The Agency may, as receiver for an enterprise, organize a successor enterprise that will operate pursuant to subsection (i).
(G) Transfer or sale of assets and liabilities
The Agency may, as conservator or receiver, transfer or sell any asset or liability of the regulated entity in default, and may do so without any approval, assignment, or consent with respect to such transfer or sale.
(H) Payment of valid obligations
The Agency, as conservator or receiver, shall, to the extent of proceeds realized from the performance of contracts or sale of the assets of a regulated entity, pay all valid obligations of the regulated entity that are due and payable at the time of the appointment of the Agency as conservator or receiver, in accordance with the prescriptions and limitations of this section.
(I) Subpoena authority
(i) In general
(I) Agency authority
The Agency may, as conservator or receiver, and for purposes of carrying out any power, authority, or duty with respect to a regulated entity (including determining any claim against the regulated entity and determining and realizing upon any asset of any person in the course of collecting money due the regulated entity), exercise any power established under section 4588 of this title.
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