26 U.S.C. § 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses
|Cite as:||26 U.S.C. § 263A|
|Currency:||Current through P.L. 116-135 (03/26/2020)|
(a) Nondeductibility of certain direct and indirect costs
(1) In general
In the case of any property to which this section applies, any costs described in paragraph (2)-
(A) in the case of property which is inventory in the hands of the taxpayer, shall be included in inventory costs, and
(B) in the case of any other property, shall be capitalized.
(2) Allocable costs
The costs described in this paragraph with respect to any property are-
(A) the direct costs of such property, and
(B) such property's proper share of those indirect costs (including taxes) part or all of which are allocable to such property.
Any cost which (but for this subsection) could not be taken into account in computing taxable income for any taxable year shall not be treated as a cost described in this paragraph.
(b) Property to which section applies
Except as otherwise provided in this section, this section shall apply to-
(1) Property produced by taxpayer
Real or tangible personal property produced by the taxpayer.
(2) Property acquired for resale
Real or personal property described in section 1221(a)(1) which is acquired by the taxpayer for resale.
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "tangible personal property" shall include a film, sound recording, video tape, book, or similar property.
(c) General exceptions
(1) Personal use property
This section shall not apply to any property produced by the taxpayer for use by the taxpayer other than in a trade or business or an activity conducted for profit.
(2) Research and experimental expenditures
This section shall not apply to any amount allowable as a deduction under section 174.
(3) Certain development and other costs of oil and gas wells or other mineral property
This section shall not apply to any cost allowable as a deduction under section 167(h), 179B, 263(c), 263(i), 291(b)(2), 616, or 617.
(4) Coordination with long-term contract rules
This section shall not apply to any property produced by the taxpayer pursuant to a long-term contract.
(5) Timber and certain ornamental trees
This section shall not apply to-
(A) trees raised, harvested, or grown by the taxpayer other than trees described in clause (ii) of subsection (e)(4)(B) (after application of the last sentence thereof), and
(B) any real property underlying such trees.
(6) Coordination with section 59(e)
Paragraphs (2) and (3) shall apply to any amount allowable as a deduction under section 59(e) for qualified expenditures described in subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), and (E) of paragraph (2) thereof.
(7) Coordination with section 168(k)(5)
This section shall not apply to any amount allowed as a deduction by reason of section 168(k)(5) (relating to special rules for certain plants bearing fruits and nuts).
(d) Exception for farming businesses
(1) Section not to apply to certain property
(A) In general
This section shall not apply to any of the following which is produced by the taxpayer in a farming business:
(i) Any animal.
(ii) Any plant which has a preproductive period of 2 years or less.
(B) Exception for taxpayers required to use accrual method
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any corporation, partnership, or tax shelter required to use an accrual method of accounting under section 447 or 448(a)(3).
(2) Treatment of certain plants lost by reason of casualty
(A) In general
If plants bearing an edible crop for human consumption were lost or damaged (while in the hands of the taxpayer) by reason of freezing temperatures, disease, drought, pests, or casualty, this section shall not apply to any costs of the taxpayer of replanting plants bearing the same type of crop (whether on the same parcel of land on which such lost or damaged plants were located or any other parcel of land of the same acreage in the United States).
(B) Special rule for person with minority interest who materially participates
Subparagraph (A) shall apply to amounts paid or incurred by a person (other than the taxpayer described in subparagraph (A)) if-
(i) the taxpayer described in subparagraph (A) has an equity interest of more than 50 percent in the plants described in subparagraph (A) at all times during the taxable year in which such amounts were paid or incurred, and
(ii) such other person holds any part of the remaining equity interest and materially participates in the planting, maintenance, cultivation, or development of the plants described in subparagraph (A) during the taxable year in which such amounts were paid or incurred.
The determination of whether an individual materially participates in any activity shall be made in a manner similar to the manner in which such determination is made under section 2032A(e)(6).
(C) Special temporary rule for citrus plants lost by reason of casualty
(i) In general
In the case of the replanting of citrus plants, subparagraph (A) shall apply to amounts paid or incurred by a person (other than the taxpayer described in subparagraph (A)) if-
(I) the taxpayer described in subparagraph (A) has an equity interest of not less than 50 percent in the replanted citrus plants at all times during the taxable year in which such amounts were paid or incurred and such other person holds any part of the remaining equity interest, or
(II) such other person acquired the entirety of such taxpayer's equity interest in the land on which the lost or damaged citrus plants were located at the time of such loss or damage, and the replanting is on such land.
Clause (i) shall not apply to any cost paid or incurred after the date which is 10 years after the date of the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.
(3) Election to have this section not apply
(A) In general
If a taxpayer makes an election under this paragraph, this section shall not apply to any plant produced in any farming business carried on by such taxpayer.
(B) Certain persons not eligible
No election may be made under this paragraph by a corporation, partnership, or tax shelter, if such corporation, partnership, or tax shelter is required to use an accrual method of accounting under section 447 or 448(a)(3).
(C) Special rule for citrus and almond growers
An election under this paragraph shall not apply with respect to any item which is attributable to the planting, cultivation, maintenance, or development of any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof) and which is incurred before the close of the 4th taxable year beginning with the taxable year in which the trees were planted. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the portion of a citrus or almond grove planted in 1 taxable year shall be treated separately from the portion of such grove planted in another taxable year.
Unless the Secretary otherwise consents, an election under this paragraph may be made only for the taxpayer's 1st taxable year which begins after December 31, 1986, and during which the taxpayer engages in a farming business. Any such election, once made, may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary.
(e) Definitions and special rules for purposes of subsection (d)
(1) Recapture of expensed amounts on disposition
(A) In general
In the case of any plant with respect to which amounts would have been capitalized under subsection (a) but for an election under subsection (d)(3)-
(i) such plant (if not otherwise section 1245 property) shall be treated as section 1245 property, and
(ii) for purposes of section 1245, the recapture amount shall be treated as a deduction allowed for depreciation with respect to such property.
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