10 U.S.C. § 2304 - Contracts: competition requirements
|Cite as:||10 U.S.C. § 2304|
|Currency:||Current through P.L. 116-65 (10/09/2019)|
(1) Except as provided in subsections (b), (c), and (g) and except in the case of procurement procedures otherwise expressly authorized by statute, the head of an agency in conducting a procurement for property or services-
(A) shall obtain full and open competition through the use of competitive procedures in accordance with the requirements of this chapter and the Federal Acquisition Regulation; and
(B) shall use the competitive procedure or combination of competitive procedures that is best suited under the circumstances of the procurement.
(2) In determining the competitive procedure appropriate under the circumstances, the head of an agency-
(A) shall solicit sealed bids if-
(i) time permits the solicitation, submission, and evaluation of sealed bids;
(ii) the award will be made on the basis of price and other price-related factors;
(iii) it is not necessary to conduct discussions with the responding sources about their bids; and
(iv) there is a reasonable expectation of receiving more than one sealed bid; and
(B) shall request competitive proposals if sealed bids are not appropriate under clause (A).
(1) The head of an agency may provide for the procurement of property or services covered by this chapter using competitive procedures but excluding a particular source in order to establish or maintain an alternative source or sources of supply for that property or service if the head of the agency determines that to do so-
(A) would increase or maintain competition and would likely result in reduced overall costs for such procurement, or for any anticipated procurement, of property or services;
(B) would be in the interest of national defense in having a facility (or a producer, manufacturer, or other supplier) available for furnishing the property or service in case of a national emergency or industrial mobilization;
(C) would be in the interest of national defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational or other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center;
(D) would ensure the continuous availability of a reliable source of supply of such property or service;
(E) would satisfy projected needs for such property or service determined on the basis of a history of high demand for the property or service; or
(F) in the case of medical supplies, safety supplies, or emergency supplies, would satisfy a critical need for such supplies.
(2) The head of an agency may provide for the procurement of property or services covered by this section using competitive procedures, but excluding concerns other than small business concerns in furtherance of sections 9 and 15 of the Small Business Act ( 15 U.S.C. 638, 644 ).
(3) A contract awarded pursuant to the competitive procedures referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not be subject to the justification and approval required by subsection (f)(1).
(4) A determination under paragraph (1) may not be made for a class of purchases or contracts.
(c) The head of an agency may use procedures other than competitive procedures only when-
(1) the property or services needed by the agency are available from only one responsible source or only from a limited number of responsible sources and no other type of property or services will satisfy the needs of the agency;
(2) the agency's need for the property or services is of such an unusual and compelling urgency that the United States would be seriously injured unless the agency is permitted to limit the number of sources from which it solicits bids or proposals;
(3) it is necessary to award the contract to a particular source or sources in order (A) to maintain a facility, producer, manufacturer, or other supplier available for furnishing property or services in case of a national emergency or to achieve industrial mobilization, (B) to establish or maintain an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational or other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center, or (C) to procure the services of an expert for use, in any litigation or dispute (including any reasonably foreseeable litigation or dispute) involving the Federal Government, in any trial, hearing, or proceeding before any court, administrative tribunal, or agency, or to procure the services of an expert or neutral for use in any part of an alternative dispute resolution or negotiated rulemaking process, whether or not the expert is expected to testify;
(4) the terms of an international agreement or a treaty between the United States and a foreign government or international organization, or the written directions of a foreign government reimbursing the agency for the cost of the procurement of the property or services for such government, have the effect of requiring the use of procedures other than competitive procedures;
(5) subject to subsection (k), a statute expressly authorizes or requires that the procurement be made through another agency or from a specified source, or the agency's need is for a brand-name commercial product for authorized resale;
(6) the disclosure of the agency's needs would compromise the national security unless the agency is permitted to limit the number of sources from which it solicits bids or proposals; or
(7) the head of the agency-
(A) determines that it is necessary in the public interest to use procedures other than competitive procedures in the particular procurement concerned, and
(B) notifies the Congress in writing of such determination not less than 30 days before the award of the contract.
(1) For the purposes of applying subsection (c)(1)-
(A) in the case of a contract for property or services to be awarded on the basis of acceptance of an unsolicited research proposal, the property or services shall be considered to be available from only one source if the source has submitted an unsolicited research proposal that demonstrates a concept-
(i) that is unique and innovative or, in the case of a service, for which the source demonstrates a unique capability of the source to provide the service; and
(ii) the substance of which is not otherwise available to the United States, and does not resemble the substance of a pending competitive procurement; and
(B) in the case of a follow-on contract for the continued development or production of a major system or highly specialized equipment, or the continued provision of highly specialized services, such property or services may be deemed to be available only from the original source and may be procured through procedures other than competitive procedures when it is likely that award to a source other than the original source would result in-
(i) substantial duplication of cost to the United States which is not expected to be recovered through competition; or
(ii) unacceptable delays in fulfilling the agency's needs.
(2) The authority of the head of an agency under subsection (c)(7) may not be delegated.
(A) The contract period of a contract described in subparagraph (B) that is entered into by an agency pursuant to the authority provided under subsection (c)(2)-
(i) may not exceed the time necessary-
(I) to meet the unusual and compelling requirements of the work to be performed under the contract; and
(II) for the agency to enter into another contract for the required goods or services through the use of competitive procedures; and
(ii) may not exceed one year unless the head of the agency entering into such contract determines that exceptional circumstances apply.
(B) This paragraph applies to any contract in an amount greater than the simplified acquisition threshold.
(e) The head of an agency using procedures other than competitive procedures to procure property or services by reason of the application of subsection (c)(2) or (c)(6) shall request offers from as many potential sources as is practicable under the circumstances.
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) and paragraph (6), the head of an agency may not award a contract using procedures other than competitive procedures unless-
(A) the contracting officer for the contract justifies the use of such procedures in writing and certifies the accuracy and completeness of the justification;
(B) the justification is approved-
(i) in the case of a contract for an amount exceeding $500,000 (but equal to or less than $10,000,000), by the competition advocate for the procuring activity (without further delegation) or by an official referred to in clause (ii) or (iii);
(ii) in the case of a contract for an amount exceeding $10,000,000 (but equal to or less than $75,000,000), by the head of the procuring activity (or the head of the procuring activity's delegate designated pursuant to paragraph (5)(A)); or
(iii) in the case of a contract for an amount exceeding $75,000,000, by the senior procurement executive of the agency designated pursuant to section 1702(c) of title 41 (without further delegation) or in the case of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, acting in his capacity as the senior procurement executive for the Department of Defense, the Under Secretary's delegate designated pursuant to paragraph (5)(B); and
(C) any required notice has been published with respect to such contract pursuant to section 1708 of title 41 and all bids or proposals received in response to that notice have been considered by the head of the agency.
(2) In the case of a procurement permitted by subsection (c)(2), the justification and approval required by paragraph (1) may be made after the contract is awarded. The justification and approval required by paragraph (1) is not required-
(A) when a statute expressly requires that the procurement be made from a specified source;
(B) when the agency's need is for a brand-name commercial product for authorized resale;
(C) in the case of a procurement permitted by subsection (c)(7);
(D) in the case of a procurement conducted under (i) chapter 85 of title 41, or (ii) section 8(a) of the Small Business Act ( 15 U.S.C. 637(a) ); or
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