12 U.S.C. § 1813 - Definitions

Cite as:12 U.S.C. § 1813
Currency:Current through P.L. 116-158 (08/14/2020)
 
FREE EXCERPT

As used in this chapter-

(a) Definitions of bank and related terms

(1) Bank

The term "bank"-

(A) means any national bank and State bank, and any Federal branch and insured branch;

(B) includes any former savings association.

(2) State bank

The term "State bank" means any bank, banking association, trust company, savings bank, industrial bank (or similar depository institution which the Board of Directors finds to be operating substantially in the same manner as an industrial bank), or other banking institution which-

(A) is engaged in the business of receiving deposits, other than trust funds (as defined in this section); and

(B) is incorporated under the laws of any State or which is operating under the Code of Law for the District of Columbia,

including any cooperative bank or other unincorporated bank the deposits of which were insured by the Corporation on the day before August 9, 1989.

(3) State

The term "State" means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, any territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

(b) Definition of savings associations and related terms

(1) Savings association

The term "savings association" means-

(A) any Federal savings association;

(B) any State savings association; and

(C) any corporation (other than a bank) that the Board of Directors and the Comptroller of the Currency jointly determine to be operating in substantially the same manner as a savings association.

(2) Federal savings association

The term "Federal savings association" means any Federal savings association or Federal savings bank which is chartered under section 1464 of this title.

(3) State savings association

The term "State savings association" means-

(A) any building and loan association, savings and loan association, or homestead association; or

(B) any cooperative bank (other than a cooperative bank which is a State bank as defined in subsection (a)(2)),

which is organized and operating according to the laws of the State (as defined in subsection (a)(3)) in which it is chartered or organized.

(c) Definitions relating to depository institutions

(1) Depository institution

The term "depository institution" means any bank or savings association.

(2) Insured depository institution

The term "insured depository institution" means any bank or savings association the deposits of which are insured by the Corporation pursuant to this chapter.

(3) Institutions included for certain purposes

The term "insured depository institution" includes any uninsured branch or agency of a foreign bank or a commercial lending company owned or controlled by a foreign bank for purposes of section 1818 of this title.

(4) Federal depository institution

The term "Federal depository institution" means any national bank, any Federal savings association, and any Federal branch.

(5) State depository institution

The term "State depository institution" means any State bank, any State savings association, and any insured branch which is not a Federal branch.

(d) Definitions relating to member banks

(1) National member bank

The term "national member bank" means any national bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System.

(2) State member bank

The term "State member bank" means any State bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System.

(e) Definitions relating to nonmember banks

(1) National nonmember bank

The term "national nonmember bank" means any national bank which-

(A) is located in any territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, or the Northern Mariana Islands; and

(B) is not a member of the Federal Reserve System.

(2) State nonmember bank

The term "State nonmember bank" means any State bank which is not a member of the Federal Reserve System.

(f) Mutual savings bank

The term "mutual savings bank" means a bank without capital stock transacting a savings bank business, the net earnings of which inure wholly to the benefit of its depositors after payment of obligations for any advances by its organizers.

(g) Savings bank

The term "savings bank" means a bank (including a mutual savings bank) which transacts its ordinary banking business strictly as a savings bank under State laws imposing special requirements on such banks governing the manner of investing their funds and of conducting their business.

(h) Insured bank

The term "insured bank" means any bank (including a foreign bank having an insured branch) the deposits of which are insured in accordance with the provisions of this chapter; and the term "noninsured bank" means any bank the deposits of which are not so insured.

(i) New depository institution and bridge depository institution defined

(1) New depository institution

The term "new depository institution" means a new national bank or Federal savings association, other than a bridge depository institution, organized by the Corporation in accordance with section 1821(m) of this title.

(2) Bridge depository institution

The term "bridge depository institution" means a new national bank or Federal savings association organized by the Corporation in accordance with section 1821(n) of this title.

(j) Receiver

The term "receiver" includes a receiver, liquidating agent, conservator, commission, person, or other agency charged by law with the duty of winding up the affairs of a bank or savings association or of a branch of a foreign bank.

(k) Board of Directors

The term "Board of Directors" means the Board of Directors of the Corporation.

(l) Deposit

The term "deposit" means-

(1) the unpaid balance of money or its equivalent received or held by a bank or savings association in the usual course of business and for which it has given or is obligated to give credit, either conditionally or unconditionally, to a commercial, checking, savings, time, or thrift account, or which is evidenced by its certificate of deposit, thrift certificate, investment certificate, certificate of indebtedness, or other similar name, or a check or draft drawn against a deposit account and certified by the bank or savings association, or a letter of credit or a traveler's check on which the bank or savings association is primarily liable: Provided, That, without limiting the generality of the term "money or its equivalent", any such account or instrument must be regarded as evidencing the receipt of the equivalent of money when credited or issued in exchange for checks or drafts or for a promissory note upon which the person obtaining any such credit or instrument is primarily or secondarily liable, or for a charge against a deposit account, or in settlement of checks, drafts, or other instruments forwarded to such bank or savings association for collection.

(2) trust funds as defined in this chapter received or held by such bank or savings association, whether held in the trust department or held or deposited in any other department of such bank or savings association.

(3) money received or held by a bank or savings association, or the credit given for money or its equivalent received or held by a bank or savings association, in the usual course of business for a special or specific purpose, regardless of the legal relationship thereby established, including without being limited to, escrow funds, funds held as security for an obligation due to the bank or savings association or others (including funds held as dealers reserves) or for securities loaned by the bank or savings association, funds deposited by a debtor to meet maturing obligations, funds deposited as advance payment on subscriptions to United States Government securities, funds held for distribution or purchase of securities, funds held to meet its acceptances or letters of credit, and withheld taxes: Provided, That there shall not be included funds which are received by the bank or savings association for immediate application to the reduction of an indebtedness to the receiving bank or savings association, or under condition that the receipt thereof immediately reduces or extinguishes such an indebtedness.

(4) outstanding draft (including advice or authorization to charge a bank's or a savings association's balance in another bank or savings association), cashier's check, money order, or other officer's check issued in the usual course of business for any purpose, including without being limited to those issued in payment for services, dividends, or purchases, and

(5) such other obligations of a bank or savings association as the Board of Directors, after consultation with the Comptroller of the Currency, and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, shall find and prescribe by regulation to be deposit liabilities by general usage, except that the following shall not be a deposit for any of the purposes of this chapter or be included as part of the total deposits or of an insured deposit:

(A) any obligation of a depository institution which is carried on the books and records of an office of such bank or savings association located outside of any State, unless-

(i) such obligation would be a deposit if it were carried on the books and records of the depository institution, and would be payable at, an office located in any State; and

(ii) the contract evidencing the obligation provides by express terms, and not by implication, for payment at an office of the depository institution located in any State;

(B) any international banking facility deposit, including an international banking facility time deposit, as such term is from time to time defined by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in regulation D or any successor regulation issued by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; and

(C) any liability of an insured depository institution that arises under an annuity contract, the income of which is tax deferred under section 72 of title 26.

(m) Insured deposit

(1) IN GENERAL.-Subject to paragraph (2), the term "insured deposit" means the net amount due to any depositor for deposits in an insured depository institution as determined under sections 1817(i) and 1821(a) of this title.

To continue reading

FREE SIGN UP