26 U.S.C. § 7701 - Definitions
|Cite as:||26 U.S.C. § 7701|
|Currency:||Current through P.L. 116-158 (08/14/2020)|
(a) When used in this title, where not otherwise distinctly expressed or manifestly incompatible with the intent thereof-
The term "person" shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation.
(2) Partnership and partner
The term "partnership" includes a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or other unincorporated organization, through or by means of which any business, financial operation, or venture is carried on, and which is not, within the meaning of this title, a trust or estate or a corporation; and the term "partner" includes a member in such a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or organization.
The term "corporation" includes associations, joint-stock companies, and insurance companies.
The term "domestic" when applied to a corporation or partnership means created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any State unless, in the case of a partnership, the Secretary provides otherwise by regulations.
The term "foreign" when applied to a corporation or partnership means a corporation or partnership which is not domestic.
The term "fiduciary" means a guardian, trustee, executor, administrator, receiver, conservator, or any person acting in any fiduciary capacity for any person.
The term "stock" includes shares in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company.
The term "shareholder" includes a member in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company.
(9) United States
The term "United States" when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia.
The term "State" shall be construed to include the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out provisions of this title.
(11) Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary
(A) Secretary of the Treasury
The term "Secretary of the Treasury" means the Secretary of the Treasury, personally, and shall not include any delegate of his.
The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate.
(A) In general
The term "or his delegate"-
(i) when used with reference to the Secretary of the Treasury, means any officer, employee, or agency of the Treasury Department duly authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury directly, or indirectly by one or more redelegations of authority, to perform the function mentioned or described in the context; and
(ii) when used with reference to any other official of the United States, shall be similarly construed.
(B) Performance of certain functions in Guam or American Samoa
The term "delegate," in relation to the performance of functions in Guam or American Samoa with respect to the taxes imposed by chapters 1, 2, and 21, also includes any officer or employee of any other department or agency of the United States, or of any possession thereof, duly authorized by the Secretary (directly, or indirectly by one or more redelegations of authority) to perform such functions.
The term "Commissioner" means the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.
The term "taxpayer" means any person subject to any internal revenue tax.
(15) Military or naval forces and armed forces of the United States
The term "military or naval forces of the United States" and the term "Armed Forces of the United States" each includes all regular and reserve components of the uniformed services which are subject to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, or the Secretary of the Air Force, and each term also includes the Coast Guard. The members of such forces include commissioned officers and personnel below the grade of commissioned officers in such forces.
(16) Withholding agent
The term "withholding agent" means any person required to deduct and withhold any tax under the provisions of section 1441, 1442, 1443, or 1461.
(17) Husband and wife
As used in section 2516, if the husband and wife therein referred to are divorced, wherever appropriate to the meaning of such section, the term "wife" shall be read "former wife" and the term "husband" shall be read "former husband"; and, if the payments described in such section are made by or on behalf of the wife or former wife to the husband or former husband instead of vice versa, wherever appropriate to the meaning of such section, the term "husband" shall be read "wife" and the term "wife" shall be read "husband."
(18) International organization
The term "international organization" means a public international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act ( 22 U.S.C. 288-288f ).
(19) Domestic building and loan association
The term "domestic building and loan association" means a domestic building and loan association, a domestic savings and loan association, and a Federal savings and loan association-
(A) which is subject by law to supervision and examination by State or Federal authority having supervision over such associations;
(B) the business of which consists principally of acquiring the savings of the public and investing in loans; and
(C) at least 60 percent of the amount of the total assets of which (at the close of the taxable year) consists of-
(ii) obligations of the United States or of a State or political subdivision thereof, and stock or obligations of a corporation which is an instrumentality of the United States or of a State or political subdivision thereof, but not including obligations the interest on which is excludable from gross income under section 103,
(iii) certificates of deposit in, or obligations of, a corporation organized under a State law which specifically authorizes such corporation to insure the deposits or share accounts of member associations,
(iv) loans secured by a deposit or share of a member,
(v) loans (including redeemable ground rents, as defined in section 1055) secured by an interest in real property which is (or, from the proceeds of the loan, will become) residential real property or real property used primarily for church purposes, loans made for the improvement of residential real property or real property used primarily for church purposes, provided that for purposes of this clause, residential real property shall include single or multifamily dwellings, facilities in residential developments dedicated to public use or property used on a nonprofit basis for residents, and mobile homes not used on a transient basis,
(vi) loans secured by an interest in real property located within an urban renewal area to be developed for predominantly residential use under an urban renewal plan approved by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development under part A or part B of title I of the Housing Act of 1949, as amended, or located within any area covered by a program eligible for assistance under section 103 of the Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966, as amended, and loans made for the improvement of any such real property,
(vii) loans secured by an interest in educational, health, or welfare institutions or facilities, including structures designed or used primarily for residential purposes for students, residents, and persons under care, employees, or members of the staff of such institutions or facilities,
(viii) property acquired through the liquidation of defaulted loans described in clause (v), (vi), or (vii),
(ix) loans made for the payment of expenses of college or university education or vocational training, in accordance with such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary,
(x) property used by the association in the conduct of the business described in subparagraph (B), and
(xi) any regular or residual interest in a REMIC, but only in the proportion which the assets of such REMIC consist of property described in any of the preceding clauses of this subparagraph; except that if 95 percent or more of the assets of such REMIC are assets described in clauses (i) through (x), the entire interest in the REMIC shall qualify.
At the election of the taxpayer, the percentage specified in this subparagraph shall be applied on the basis of the average assets outstanding during the taxable year, in lieu of the close of the taxable year, computed under regulations prescribed by the Secretary. For purposes of clause (v), if a multifamily structure securing a loan is used in part for nonresidential purposes, the entire loan is deemed a residential real property loan if the planned residential use exceeds 80 percent of the property's planned use (determined as of the time the loan is made). For purposes of clause (v), loans made to finance the acquisition or development of land shall be deemed to be loans secured by an interest in residential real property if, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, there is reasonable assurance that the property will become residential real property within a period of 3 years from the date of acquisition of such land; but this sentence shall not apply for any taxable year unless, within such 3-year period, such land becomes residential real property. For purposes of determining whether any interest in a REMIC qualifies under clause (xi), any regular interest in another REMIC held by such REMIC shall be treated as a loan described in a preceding clause under principles similar to the principles of clause (xi); except that, if such REMIC's are part of a tiered structure, they shall be treated as 1 REMIC for purposes of clause (xi).
For the purpose of applying the provisions of section 79 with respect to group-term life insurance purchased for employees, for the purpose of applying the provisions of sections 104, 105, and 106 with respect to accident and health insurance or accident and health plans, and for the purpose of applying the provisions of subtitle A with respect to contributions to or under a stock bonus, pension, profit-sharing, or annuity plan, and with respect to distributions under such a plan, or by a trust forming part of such a plan, and for purposes of applying section 125 with respect to cafeteria plans, the term "employee" shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21.
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