12 U.S.C. § 1815 - Deposit insurance
|Cite as:||12 U.S.C. § 1815|
|Currency:||Current through P.L. 116-135 (03/26/2020)|
(a) Application to Corporation required
(1) In general
Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), any depository institution which is engaged in the business of receiving deposits other than trust funds (as defined in section 1813(p) of this title), upon application to and examination by the Corporation and approval by the Board of Directors, may become an insured depository institution.
(2) Interim depository institutions
In the case of any interim Federal depository institution that is chartered by the appropriate Federal banking agency and will not open for business, the depository institution shall be an insured depository institution upon the issuance of the institution's charter by the agency.
(3) Application and approval not required in cases of continued insurance
Paragraph (1) shall not apply in the case of any depository institution whose insured status is continued pursuant to section 1814 of this title.
(4) Review requirements
In reviewing any application under this subsection, the Board of Directors shall consider the factors described in section 1816 of this title in determining whether to approve the application for insurance.
(5) Notice of denial of application for insurance
If the Board of Directors votes to deny any application for insurance by any depository institution, the Board of Directors shall promptly notify the appropriate Federal banking agency and, in the case of any State depository institution, the appropriate State banking supervisor of the denial of such application, giving specific reasons in writing for the Board of Directors' determination with reference to the factors described in section 1816 of this title.
(6) Nondelegation requirement
The authority of the Board of Directors to make any determination to deny any application under this subsection may not be delegated by the Board of Directors.
(b) Foreign branch nonmember banks; matters considered
Subject to the provisions of this chapter and to such terms and conditions as the Board of Directors may impose, any branch of a foreign bank, upon application by the bank to the Corporation, and examination by the Corporation of the branch, and approval by the Board of Directors, may become an insured branch. Before approving any such application, the Board of Directors shall give consideration to-
(1) the financial history and condition of the bank,
(2) the adequacy of its capital structure,
(3) its future earnings prospects,
(4) the general character and fitness of its management, including but not limited to the management of the branch proposed to be insured,
(5) the risk presented to the Deposit Insurance Fund,
(6) the convenience and needs of the community to be served by the branch,
(7) whether or not its corporate powers, insofar as they will be exercised through the proposed insured branch, are consistent with the purposes of this chapter, and
(8) the probable adequacy and reliability of information supplied and to be supplied by the bank to the Corporation to enable it to carry out its functions under this chapter.
(c) Protection to Deposit Insurance Fund; surety bond, pledge of assets, etc.; injunction
(1) Before any branch of a foreign bank becomes an insured branch, the bank shall deliver to the Corporation or as the Corporation may direct a surety bond, a pledge of assets, or both, in such amounts and of such types as the Corporation may require or approve, for the purpose set forth in paragraph (4) of this subsection.
(2) After any branch of a foreign bank becomes an insured branch, the bank shall maintain on deposit with the Corporation, or as the Corporation may direct, surety bonds or assets or both, in such amounts and of such types as shall be determined from time to time in accordance with such regulations as the Board of Directors may prescribe. Such regulations may impose differing requirements on the basis of any factors which in the judgment of the Board of Directors are reasonably related to the purpose set forth in paragraph (4).
(3) The Corporation may require of any given bank larger deposits of bonds and assets than required under paragraph (2) of this subsection if, in the judgment of the Corporation, the situation of that bank or any branch thereof is or becomes such that the deposits of bonds and assets otherwise required under this section would not adequately fulfill the purpose set forth in paragraph (4). The imposition of any such additional requirements may be without notice or opportunity for hearing, but the Corporation shall afford an opportunity to any such bank to apply for a reduction or removal of any such additional requirements so imposed.
(4) The purpose of the surety bonds and pledges of assets required under this subsection is to provide protection to the Deposit Insurance Fund against the risks entailed in insuring the domestic deposits of a foreign bank whose activities, assets, and personnel are in large part outside the jurisdiction of the United States. In the implementation of its authority under this subsection, however, the Corporation shall endeavor to avoid imposing requirements on such banks which would unnecessarily place them at a competitive disadvantage in relation to domestically incorporated banks.
(5) In the case of any failure or threatened failure of a foreign bank to comply with any requirement imposed under this subsection (c), the Corporation, in addition to all other administrative and judicial remedies, may apply to any United States district court, or United States court of any territory, within the jurisdiction of which any branch of the bank is located, for an injunction to compel such bank and any officer, employee, or agent thereof, or any other person having custody or control of any of its assets, to deliver to the Corporation such assets as may be necessary to meet such requirement, and to take any other action necessary to vest the Corporation with control of assets so delivered. If the court shall determine that there has been any such failure or threatened failure to comply with any such requirement, it shall be the duty of the court to issue such injunction. The propriety of the requirement may be litigated only as provided in chapter 7 of title 5, and may not be made an issue in an action for an injunction under this paragraph.
(d) Insurance fees
(1) In general
Any institution that becomes insured by the Corporation, and any noninsured branch that becomes insured by the Corporation, shall pay the Corporation any fee which the Corporation may by regulation prescribe, after giving due consideration to the need to establish and maintain the reserve ratio of the Deposit Insurance Fund.
(2) Fee credited to the Deposit Insurance Fund
The fee paid by the depository institution under paragraph (1) shall be credited to the Deposit Insurance Fund.
(3) Exception for certain depository institutions
Any depository institution that becomes an insured depository institution by operation of section 1814(a) of this title shall not pay any fee.
(e) Liability of commonly controlled depository institutions
(1) In general
(A) Liability established
Any insured depository institution shall be liable for any loss incurred by the Corporation, or any loss which the Corporation reasonably anticipates incurring, after August 9, 1989, in connection with-
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