26 U.S.C. § 167 - Depreciation
|Cite as:||26 U.S.C. § 167|
|Currency:||Current through P.L. 116-158 (08/14/2020)|
(a) General rule
There shall be allowed as a depreciation deduction a reasonable allowance for the exhaustion, wear and tear (including a reasonable allowance for obsolescence)-
(1) of property used in the trade or business, or
(2) of property held for the production of income.
(b) Cross reference
For determination of depreciation deduction in case of property to which section 168 applies, see section 168.
(c) Basis for depreciation
(1) In general
The basis on which exhaustion, wear and tear, and obsolescence are to be allowed in respect of any property shall be the adjusted basis provided in section 1011, for the purpose of determining the gain on the sale or other disposition of such property.
(2) Special rule for property subject to lease
If any property is acquired subject to a lease-
(A) no portion of the adjusted basis shall be allocated to the leasehold interest, and
(B) the entire adjusted basis shall be taken into account in determining the depreciation deduction (if any) with respect to the property subject to the lease.
(d) Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates
In the case of property held by one person for life with remainder to another person, the deduction shall be computed as if the life tenant were the absolute owner of the property and shall be allowed to the life tenant. In the case of property held in trust, the allowable deduction shall be apportioned between the income beneficiaries and the trustee in accordance with the pertinent provisions of the instrument creating the trust, or, in the absence of such provisions, on the basis of the trust income allocable to each. In the case of an estate, the allowable deduction shall be apportioned between the estate and the heirs, legatees, and devisees on the basis of the income of the estate allocable to each.
(e) Certain term interests not depreciable
(1) In general
No depreciation deduction shall be allowed under this section (and no depreciation or amortization deduction shall be allowed under any other provision of this subtitle) to the taxpayer for any term interest in property for any period during which the remainder interest in such property is held (directly or indirectly) by a related person.
(2) Coordination with other provisions
(A) Section 273
This subsection shall not apply to any term interest to which section 273 applies.
(B) Section 305(e)
This subsection shall not apply to the holder of the dividend rights which were separated from any stripped preferred stock to which section 305(e)(1) applies.
(3) Basis adjustments
If, but for this subsection, a depreciation or amortization deduction would be allowable to the taxpayer with respect to any term interest in property-
(A) the taxpayer's basis in such property shall be reduced by any depreciation or amortization deductions disallowed under this subsection, and
(B) the basis of the remainder interest in such property shall be increased by the amount of such disallowed deductions (properly adjusted for any depreciation deductions allowable under subsection (d) to the taxpayer).
(4) Special rules
(A) Denial of increase in basis of remainderman
No increase in the basis of the remainder interest shall be made under paragraph (3)(B) for any disallowed deductions attributable to periods during which the term interest was held-
(i) by an organization exempt from tax under this subtitle, or
(ii) by a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation but only if income from the term interest is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States.
(B) Coordination with subsection (d)
If, but for this subsection, a depreciation or amortization deduction would be allowable to any person with respect to any term interest in property, the principles of subsection (d) shall apply to such person with respect to such term interest.
For purposes of this subsection-
(A) Term interest in property
The term "term interest in property" has the meaning given such term by section 1001(e)(2).
(B) Related person
The term "related person" means any person bearing a relationship to the taxpayer described in subsection (b) or (e) of section 267.
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including regulations preventing avoidance of this subsection through cross-ownership arrangements or otherwise.
(f) Treatment of certain property excluded from section 197
(1) Computer software
(A) In general
If a depreciation deduction is allowable under subsection (a) with respect to any computer software, such deduction shall be computed by using the straight line method and a useful life of 36 months.
(B) Computer software
For purposes of this section, the term "computer software" has the meaning given to such term by section 197(e)(3)(B); except that such term shall not include any such software which is an amortizable section 197 intangible.
(C) Tax-exempt use property subject to lease
In the case of computer software which would be tax-exempt use property as defined in subsection (h) of section 168 if such section applied to computer software, the useful life under subparagraph (A) shall not be less than 125 percent of the lease term (within the meaning of section 168(i)(3)).
(2) Certain interests or rights acquired separately
If a depreciation deduction is allowable under subsection (a) with respect to any property described in subparagraph (B), (C), or (D) of section 197(e)(4), such deduction shall be computed in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary. If such property would be tax-exempt use property as defined in subsection (h) of section 168 if such section applied to such property, the useful life under such regulations shall not be less than 125 percent of the lease term (within the meaning of section 168(i)(3)).
(3) Mortgage servicing rights
If a depreciation deduction is allowable under subsection (a) with respect to any right described in section 197(e)(6), such deduction shall be computed by using the straight line method and a useful life of 108 months.
(g) Depreciation under income forecast method
(1) In general
If the depreciation deduction allowable under this section to any taxpayer with respect to any property is determined under the income forecast method or any similar method-
(A) the income from the property to be taken into account in determining the depreciation deduction under such method shall be equal to the amount of income earned in connection with the property before the close of the 10th taxable year following the taxable year in which the property was placed in service,
(B) the adjusted basis of the property shall only include amounts with respect to which the requirements of section 461(h) are satisfied,
(C) the depreciation deduction under such method for the 10th taxable year beginning after the taxable year in which the property was placed in service shall be equal to the adjusted basis of such property as of the beginning of such 10th taxable year, and
(D) such taxpayer shall pay (or be entitled to receive) interest computed under the look-back method of paragraph (2) for any recomputation year.
(2) Look-back method
The interest computed under the look-back method of this paragraph for any recomputation year shall be determined by-
(A) first determining the depreciation deductions under this section with respect to such property which would have been allowable for prior taxable years if the determination of the amounts so allowable had been made on the basis of the sum of the following (instead of the estimated income from such property)-
(i) the actual income earned in connection with such property for periods before the close of the recomputation year, and
(ii) an estimate of the future income to be earned in connection with such property for periods after the recomputation year and before the close of the 10th taxable year following the taxable year in which the property was placed in service,
(B) second, determining (solely for purposes of computing such interest) the overpayment or underpayment of tax for each such prior taxable year which would result solely from the application of subparagraph (A), and
(C) then using the adjusted overpayment rate (as defined in section 460(b)(7)), compounded daily, on the overpayment or underpayment determined under subparagraph (B).
For purposes of the preceding sentence, any cost incurred after the property is placed in service (which is not treated as a separate property under paragraph (5)) shall be taken into account by discounting (using the Federal mid-term rate determined under section 1274(d) as of the time such cost is incurred) such cost to its value as of the date the property is placed in service. The taxpayer may elect with respect to any property to have the preceding sentence not apply to such property.
(3) Exception from look-back method
Paragraph (1)(D) shall not apply with respect to any property which had a cost basis of $100,000 or less.
(4) Recomputation year
For purposes of this subsection, except as provided in regulations, the term "recomputation year" means, with respect to any property, the 3d and the 10th taxable years beginning after the taxable year in which the property was placed in service, unless the actual income earned in connection with the property for the period before the close of such 3d or 10th taxable year is within 10 percent of the income earned in connection with the property for such period which was taken into account under paragraph (1)(A).
(5) Special rules
(A) Certain costs treated as separate property
For purposes of this subsection, the following costs shall be treated as separate properties:
(i) Any costs incurred with respect to any property after the 10th taxable year beginning after the taxable year in which the property was placed in service.
(ii) Any costs incurred after the property is placed in service and before the close of such 10th taxable year if such costs are significant and give rise to a significant increase in the income from the property which was not included in the estimated income from the property.
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