42 U.S.C. 423 - Disability insurance benefit payments
|Cite as:||42 U.S.C. 423|
|Currency:||Current through P.L. 116-158 (08/14/2020)|
(a) Disability insurance benefits
(1) Every individual who-
(A) is insured for disability insurance benefits (as determined under subsection (c)(1)),
(B) has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title),
(C) if not a United States citizen or national-
(i) has been assigned a social security account number that was, at the time of assignment, or at any later time, consistent with the requirements of subclause (I) or (III) of section 405(c)(2)(B)(i) of this title; or
(ii) at the time any quarters of coverage are earned-
(I) is described in subparagraph (B) or (D) of section 1101(a)(15) of title 8,
(II) is lawfully admitted temporarily to the United States for business (in the case of an individual described in such subparagraph (B)) or the performance as a crewman (in the case of an individual described in such subparagraph (D)), and
(III) the business engaged in or service as a crewman performed is within the scope of the terms of such individual's admission to the United States.1
(D) has filed application for disability insurance benefits, and
(E) is under a disability (as defined in subsection (d))
shall be entitled to a disability insurance benefit (i) for each month beginning with the first month after his waiting period (as defined in subsection (c)(2)) in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or (ii) for each month beginning with the first month during all of which he is under a disability and in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, but only if he was entitled to disability insurance benefits which terminated, or had a period of disability (as defined in section 416(i) of this title) which ceased, within the 60-month period preceding the first month in which he is under such disability, and ending with the month preceding whichever of the following months is the earliest: the month in which he dies, the month in which he attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), or, subject to subsection (e), the termination month. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the termination month for any individual shall be the third month following the month in which his disability ceases; except that, in the case of an individual who has a period of trial work which ends as determined by application of section 422(c)(4)(A) of this title, the termination month shall be the earlier of (I) the third month following the earliest month after the end of such period of trial work with respect to which such individual is determined to no longer be suffering from a disabling physical or mental impairment, or (II) the third month following the earliest month in which such individual engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity, but in no event earlier than the first month occurring after the 36 months following such period of trial work in which he engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity. No payment under this paragraph may be made to an individual who would not meet the definition of disability in subsection (d) except for paragraph (1)(B) thereof for any month in which he engages in substantial gainful activity, and no payment may be made for such month under subsection (b), (c), or (d) of section 402 of this title to any person on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual. In the case of a deceased individual, the requirement of subparagraph (C) may be satisfied by an application for benefits filed with respect to such individual within 3 months after the month in which he died.
(2) Except as provided in section 402(q) of this title and section 415(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title, such individual's disability insurance benefit for any month shall be equal to his primary insurance amount for such month determined under section 415 of this title as though he had attained age 62 in-
(A) the first month of his waiting period, or
(B) in any case in which clause (ii) of paragraph (1) of this subsection is applicable, the first month for which he becomes entitled to such disability insurance benefits,
and as though he had become entitled to old-age insurance benefits in the month in which the application for disability insurance benefits was filed and he was entitled to an old-age insurance benefit for each month for which (pursuant to subsection (b)) he was entitled to a disability insurance benefit. For the purposes of the preceding sentence, in the case of an individual who attained age 62 in or before the first month referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B) of such sentence, as the case may be, the elapsed years referred to in section 415(b)(3) of this title shall not include the year in which he attained age 62, or any year thereafter.
(b) Filing application
An application for disability insurance benefits filed before the first month in which the applicant satisfies the requirements for such benefits (as prescribed in subsection (a)(1)) shall be deemed a valid application (and shall be deemed to have been filed in such first month) only if the applicant satisfies the requirements for such benefits before the Commissioner of Social Security makes a final decision on the application and no request under section 405(b) of this title for notice and opportunity for a hearing thereon is made, or if such a request is made, before a decision based upon the evidence adduced at the hearing is made (regardless of whether such decision becomes the final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security). An individual who would have been entitled to a disability insurance benefit for any month had he filed application therefor before the end of such month shall be entitled to such benefit for such month if such application is filed before the end of the 12th month immediately succeeding such month.
(c) Definitions; insured status; waiting period
For purposes of this section-
(1) An individual shall be insured for disability insurance benefits in any month if-
(A) he would have been a fully insured individual (as defined in section 414 of this title) had he attained age 62 and filed application for benefits under section 402(a) of this title on the first day of such month, and
(i) he had not less than 20 quarters of coverage during the 40-quarter period which ends with the quarter in which such month occurred, or
(ii) if such month ends before the quarter in which he attains (or would attain) age 31, not less than one-half (and not less than 6) of the quarters during the period ending with the quarter in which such month occurred and beginning after he attained the age of 21 were quarters of coverage, or (if the number of quarters in such period is less than 12) not less than 6 of the quarters in the 12-quarter period ending with such quarter were quarters of coverage, or
(iii) in the case of an individual (not otherwise insured under clause (i)) who, by reason of section 416(i)(3)(B)(ii) of this title, had a prior period of disability that began during a period before the quarter in which he or she attained age 31, not less than one-half of the quarters beginning after such individual attained age 21 and ending with the quarter in which such month occurs are quarters of coverage, or (if the number of quarters in such period is less than 12) not less than 6 of the quarters in the 12-quarter period ending with such quarter are quarters of coverage;
except that the provisions of subparagraph (B) of this paragraph shall not apply in the case of an individual who is blind (within the meaning of "blindness" as defined in section 416(i)(1) of this title). For purposes of subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, when the number of quarters in any period is an odd number, such number shall be reduced by one, and a quarter shall not be counted as part of any period if any part of such quarter was included in a period of disability unless such quarter was a quarter of coverage.
(2) The term "waiting period" means, in the case of any application for disability insurance benefits, the earliest period of five consecutive calendar months-
(A) throughout which the individual with respect to whom such application is filed has been under a disability, and
(i) which begins not earlier than with the first day of the seventeenth month before the month in which such application is filed if such individual is insured for disability insurance benefits in such seventeenth month, or
(ii) if he is not so insured in such month, which begins not earlier than with the first day of the first month after such seventeenth month in which he is so insured.
Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph, no waiting period may begin for any individual before January 1, 1957.
(d) "Disability" defined
(1) The term "disability" means-
(A) inability to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or which has lasted or can be expected to last for a continuous period of not less than 12 months; or
(B) in the case of an individual who has attained the age of 55 and is blind (within the meaning of "blindness" as defined in section 416(i)(1) of this title), inability by reason of such blindness to engage in substantial gainful activity requiring skills or abilities comparable to those of any gainful activity in which he has previously engaged with some regularity and over a substantial period of time.
(2) For purposes of paragraph (1)(A)-
(A) An individual shall be determined to be under a disability only if his physical or mental impairment or impairments are of such severity that he is not only unable to do his previous work but cannot, considering his age, education, and work experience, engage in any other kind of substantial gainful work which exists in the national economy, regardless of whether such work exists in the immediate area in which he lives, or whether a specific job vacancy exists for him, or whether he would be hired if he applied for work. For purposes of the preceding sentence (with respect to any individual), "work which exists in the national economy" means work which exists in significant numbers either in the region where such individual lives or in several regions of the country.
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