23 U.S.C. § 139 - Efficient environmental reviews for project decisionmaking

Cite as23 U.S.C. § 139

(a) DEFINITIONS.-In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) AGENCY.-The term "agency" means any agency, department, or other unit of Federal, State, local, or Indian tribal government.

(2) ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT.-The term "environmental impact statement" means the detailed statement of environmental impacts required to be prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 ( 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).


(A) IN GENERAL.-The term "environmental review process" means the process for preparing for a project an environmental impact statement, environmental assessment, categorical exclusion, or other document prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 ( 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

(B) INCLUSIONS.-The term "environmental review process" includes the process for and completion of any environmental permit, approval, review, or study required for a project under any Federal law other than the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 ( 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

(4) LEAD AGENCY.-The term "lead agency" means the Department of Transportation and, if applicable, any State or local governmental entity serving as a joint lead agency pursuant to this section.

(5) MULTIMODAL PROJECT.-The term "multimodal project" means a project that requires the approval of more than 1 Department of Transportation operating administration or secretarial office.


(A) IN GENERAL.-The term "project" means any highway project, public transportation capital project, or multimodal project that, if implemented as proposed by the project sponsor, would require approval by any operating administration or secretarial office within the Department of Transportation.

(B) CONSIDERATIONS.-In determining whether a project is a project under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall take into account, if known, any sources of Federal funding or financing identified by the project sponsor, including any discretionary grant, loan, and loan guarantee programs administered by the Department of Transportation.

(7) PROJECT SPONSOR.-The term "project sponsor" means the agency or other entity, including any private or public-private entity, that seeks approval of the Secretary for a project.

(8) STATE TRANSPORTATION DEPARTMENT.-The term "State transportation department" means any statewide agency of a State with responsibility for one or more modes of transportation.


(1) IN GENERAL.-The project development procedures in this section are applicable to all projects for which an environmental impact statement is prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and may be applied, to the extent determined appropriate by the Secretary, to other projects for which an environmental document is prepared pursuant to such Act.

(2) FLEXIBILITY.-Any authorities granted in this section may be exercised, and any requirements established under this section may be satisfied, for a project, class of projects, or program of projects.


(A) IN GENERAL.-The Secretary shall allow for the use of programmatic approaches to conduct environmental reviews that-

(i) eliminate repetitive discussions of the same issues;

(ii) focus on the actual issues ripe for analyses at each level of review; and

(iii) are consistent with-

(I) the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 ( 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.); and

(II) other applicable laws.

(B) REQUIREMENTS.-In carrying out subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall ensure that programmatic reviews-

(i) promote transparency, including the transparency of-

(I) the analyses and data used in the environmental reviews;

(II) the treatment of any deferred issues raised by agencies or the public; and

(III) the temporal and spatial scales to be used to analyze issues under subclauses (I) and (II);

(ii) use accurate and timely information, including through establishment of-

(I) criteria for determining the general duration of the usefulness of the review; and

(II) a timeline for updating an out-of-date review;

(iii) describe-

(I) the relationship between any programmatic analysis and future tiered analysis; and

(II) the role of the public in the creation of future tiered analysis;

(iv) are available to other relevant Federal and State agencies, Indian tribes, and the public; and

(v) provide notice and public comment opportunities consistent with applicable requirements.



(A) IN GENERAL.-The Department of Transportation, or an operating administration thereof designated by the Secretary, shall be the Federal lead agency in the environmental review process for a project.

(B) MODAL ADMINISTRATION.-If the project requires approval from more than 1 modal administration within the Department, the Secretary may designate a single modal administration to serve as the Federal lead agency for the Department in the environmental review process for the project.

(2) JOINT LEAD AGENCIES.-Nothing in this section precludes another agency from being a joint lead agency in accordance with regulations under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969.

(3) PROJECT SPONSOR AS JOINT LEAD AGENCY.-Any project sponsor that is a State or local governmental entity receiving funds under this title or chapter 53 of title 49 for the project shall serve as a joint lead agency with the Department for purposes of preparing any environmental document under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and may prepare any such environmental document required in support of any action or approval by the Secretary if the Federal lead agency furnishes guidance in such preparation and independently evaluates such document and the document is approved and adopted by the Secretary prior to the Secretary taking any subsequent action or making any approval based on such document, whether or not the Secretary's action or approval results in Federal funding.

(4) ENSURING COMPLIANCE.-The Secretary shall ensure that the project sponsor complies with all design and mitigation commitments made jointly by the Secretary and the project sponsor in any environmental document prepared by the project sponsor in accordance with this subsection and that such document is appropriately supplemented if project changes become necessary.

(5) ADOPTION AND USE OF DOCUMENTS.-Any environmental document prepared in accordance with this subsection may be adopted or used by any Federal agency making any approval to the same extent that such Federal agency could adopt or use a document prepared by another Federal agency.

(6) ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITY OF LEAD AGENCY.-With respect to the environmental review process for any project, the lead agency shall have authority and responsibility-

(A) to take such actions as are necessary and proper, within the authority of the lead agency, to facilitate the expeditious resolution of the environmental review process for the project;

(B) to prepare or ensure that any required environmental impact statement or other document required to be completed under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 is completed in accordance with this section and applicable Federal law; and

(C) to consider and respond to comments received from participating agencies on matters within the special expertise or jurisdiction of those agencies.


(1) IN GENERAL.-The lead agency shall be responsible for inviting and designating participating agencies in accordance with this subsection.

(2) INVITATION.-Not later than 45 days after the date of publication of a notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement or the initiation of an environmental assessment, the lead agency shall identify any other Federal and non-Federal agencies that may have an interest in the project, and shall invite such agencies to become participating agencies in the environmental review process for the project. The invitation shall set a deadline for responses to be submitted. The deadline may be extended by the lead agency for good cause.

(3) FEDERAL PARTICIPATING AGENCIES.-Any Federal agency that is invited by the lead agency to participate in the environmental review process for a project shall be designated as a participating agency by the lead agency unless the invited agency informs the lead agency, in writing, by the deadline specified in the invitation that the invited agency-

(A) has no jurisdiction or authority with respect to the project;

(B) has no expertise or information relevant to the project; and

(C) does not intend to submit comments on the project.


(A) REQUIREMENT.-A participating agency shall comply with the requirements of this section.

(B) IMPLICATION.-Designation as a participating agency under this subsection shall not imply that the participating agency-

(i) supports a proposed project; or

(ii) has any jurisdiction over, or special expertise with respect to evaluation of, the project.

(5) COOPERATING AGENCY.-A participating agency may also be designated by a lead agency as a "cooperating agency" under the regulations contained in part 1500 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations.

(6) DESIGNATIONS FOR CATEGORIES OF PROJECTS.-The Secretary may exercise the authorities granted under this subsection for a project, class of projects, or program of projects.

(7) CONCURRENT REVIEWS.-Each participating agency and cooperating agency shall-

(A) carry out the obligations of that agency under other applicable law concurrently, and in conjunction, with the review required under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 ( 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), unless doing so would impair the ability of the Federal agency to conduct needed analysis or otherwise carry out those obligations; and

(B) formulate and implement administrative, policy, and procedural mechanisms to enable the agency to ensure completion of the environmental review process in a timely, coordinated, and environmentally responsible manner.

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