23 U.S.C. § 148 - Highway safety improvement program

Cite as23 U.S.C. § 148

(a) DEFINITIONS.-In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) HIGH RISK RURAL ROAD.-The term "high risk rural road" means any roadway functionally classified as a rural major or minor collector or a rural local road with significant safety risks, as defined by a State in accordance with an updated State strategic highway safety plan.

(2) HIGHWAY BASEMAP.-The term "highway basemap" means a representation of all public roads that can be used to geolocate attribute data on a roadway.

(3) HIGHWAY SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM.-The term "highway safety improvement program" means projects, activities, plans, and reports carried out under this section.


(A) IN GENERAL.-The term "highway safety improvement project" means strategies, activities, and projects on a public road that are consistent with a State strategic highway safety plan and-

(i) correct or improve a hazardous road location or feature; or

(ii) address a highway safety problem.

(B) INCLUSIONS.-The term "highway safety improvement project" only includes a project for 1 or more of the following:

(i) An intersection safety improvement that provides for the safety of all road users, as appropriate, including a multimodal roundabout.

(ii) Pavement and shoulder widening (including addition of a passing lane to remedy an unsafe condition).

(iii) Installation of rumble strips or another warning device, if the rumble strips or other warning devices do not adversely affect the safety or mobility of bicyclists and pedestrians, including persons with disabilities.

(iv) Installation of a skid-resistant surface at an intersection or other location with a high frequency of crashes.

(v) An improvement for pedestrian or bicyclist safety or safety of persons with disabilities.

(vi) Construction and improvement of a railway-highway grade crossing safety feature, including installation of protective devices or a grade separation project.

(vii) The conduct of a model traffic enforcement activity at a railway-highway crossing.

(viii) Construction or installation of features, measures, and road designs to calm traffic and reduce vehicle speeds.

(ix) Elimination of a roadside hazard.

(x) Installation, replacement, and other improvement of highway signage and pavement markings, or a project to maintain minimum levels of retroreflectivity, that addresses a highway safety problem consistent with a State strategic highway safety plan.

(xi) Installation of a priority control system for emergency vehicles at signalized intersections.

(xii) Installation of a traffic control or other warning device at a location with high crash potential.

(xiii) Transportation safety planning.

(xiv) Collection, analysis, and improvement of safety data.

(xv) Planning integrated interoperable emergency communications equipment, operational activities, or traffic enforcement activities (including police assistance) relating to work zone safety.

(xvi) Installation of guardrails, barriers (including barriers between construction work zones and traffic lanes for the safety of road users and workers), and crash attenuators.

(xvii) The addition or retrofitting of structures or other measures to eliminate or reduce crashes involving vehicles and wildlife.

(xviii) Installation of yellow-green signs and signals at pedestrian and bicycle crossings and in school zones.

(xix) Construction and operational improvements on high risk rural roads.

(xx) Geometric improvements to a road for safety purposes that improve safety.

(xxi) A road safety audit.

(xxii) Roadway safety infrastructure improvements consistent with the recommendations included in the publication of the Federal Highway Administration entitled "Highway Design Handbook for Older Drivers and Pedestrians" (FHWA-RD-01-103), dated May 2001 or as subsequently revised and updated.

(xxiii) Truck parking facilities eligible for funding under section 1401 of the MAP-21.

(xxiv) Systemic safety improvements.

(xxv) Installation of vehicle-to-infrastructure communication equipment.

(xxvi) Installation or upgrades of traffic control devices for pedestrians and bicyclists, including pedestrian hybrid beacons and the addition of bicycle movement phases to traffic signals.

(xxvii) Roadway improvements that provide separation between pedestrians and motor vehicles or between bicyclists and motor vehicles, including medians, pedestrian crossing islands, protected bike lanes, and protected intersection features.

(xxviii) A pedestrian security feature designed to slow or stop a motor vehicle.

(xxix) A physical infrastructure safety project not described in clauses (i) through (xxviii).

(5) MODEL INVENTORY OF ROADWAY ELEMENTS.-The term "model inventory of roadway elements" means the listing and standardized coding by the Federal Highway Administration of roadway and traffic data elements critical to safety management, analysis, and decisionmaking.

(6) PROJECT TO MAINTAIN MINIMUM LEVELS OF RETROREFLECTIVITY.-The term "project to maintain minimum levels of retroreflectivity" means a project that is designed to maintain a highway sign or pavement marking retroreflectivity at or above the minimum levels prescribed in Federal or State regulations.

(7) ROAD SAFETY AUDIT.-The term "road safety audit" means a formal safety performance examination of an existing or future road or intersection by an independent multidisciplinary audit team.

(8) ROAD USERS.-The term "road user" means a motorist, passenger, public transportation operator or user, truck driver, bicyclist, motorcyclist, or pedestrian, including a person with disabilities.

(9) SAFE SYSTEM APPROACH.-The term "safe system approach" means a roadway design-

(A) that emphasizes minimizing the risk of injury or fatality to road users; and

(B) that-

(i) takes into consideration the possibility and likelihood of human error;

(ii) accommodates human injury tolerance by taking into consideration likely accident types, resulting impact forces, and the ability of the human body to withstand impact forces; and

(iii) takes into consideration vulnerable road users.


(A) IN GENERAL.-The term "safety data" means crash, roadway, and traffic data on a public road.

(B) INCLUSION.-The term "safety data" includes, in the case of a railway-highway grade crossing, the characteristics of highway and train traffic, licensing, and vehicle data.


(A) IN GENERAL.-The term "specified safety project" means a project carried out for the purpose of safety under any other section of this title that is consistent with the State strategic highway safety plan.

(B) INCLUSION.-The term "specified safety project" includes a project that-

(i) promotes public awareness and informs the public regarding highway safety matters (including safety for motorcyclists, bicyclists, pedestrians, individuals with disabilities, and other road users);

(ii) facilitates enforcement of traffic safety laws;

(iii) provides infrastructure and infrastructure-related equipment to support emergency services;

(iv) conducts safety-related research to evaluate experimental safety countermeasures or equipment; or

(v) supports safe routes to school noninfrastructure-related activities described in section 208(g)(2).

(12) STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM.-The term "State highway safety improvement program" means a program of highway safety improvement projects, activities, plans and reports carried out as part of the Statewide transportation improvement program under section 135(g).

(13) STATE STRATEGIC HIGHWAY SAFETY PLAN.-The term "State strategic highway safety plan" means a comprehensive plan, based on safety data, developed by a State transportation department that-

(A) is developed after consultation with-

(i) a highway safety representative of the Governor of the State;

(ii) regional transportation planning organizations and metropolitan planning organizations, if any;

(iii) representatives of major modes of transportation;

(iv) State and local traffic enforcement officials;

(v) a highway-rail grade crossing safety representative of the Governor of the State;

(vi) representatives conducting a motor carrier safety program under section 31102, 31106, or 31309 of title 49;

(vii) motor vehicle administration agencies;

(viii) county transportation officials;

(ix) State representatives of nonmotorized users; and

(x) other major Federal, State, tribal, and local safety stakeholders;

(B) analyzes and makes effective use of State, regional, local, or tribal safety data;

(C) addresses engineering, management, operation, education, enforcement, and emergency services elements (including integrated, interoperable emergency communications) of highway safety as key factors in evaluating highway projects;

(D) considers safety needs of, and high-fatality segments of, all public roads, including non-State-owned public roads and roads on tribal land;

(E) considers the results of State, regional, or local transportation and highway safety planning processes;

(F) describes a program of strategies to reduce or eliminate safety hazards;

(G) includes a vulnerable road user safety assessment;

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