12 U.S.C. § 1821 - Insurance Funds

Cite as:12 U.S.C. § 1821
Currency:Current through P.L. 116-158 (08/14/2020)
 
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(a) Deposit insurance

(1) Insured amounts payable

(A) In general

The Corporation shall insure the deposits of all insured depository institutions as provided in this chapter.

(B) Net amount of insured deposit

The net amount due to any depositor at an insured depository institution shall not exceed the standard maximum deposit insurance amount as determined in accordance with subparagraphs (C), (D), (E) and (F) and paragraph (3).

(C) Aggregation of deposits

For the purpose of determining the net amount due to any depositor under subparagraph (B), the Corporation shall aggregate the amounts of all deposits in the insured depository institution which are maintained by a depositor in the same capacity and the same right for the benefit of the depositor either in the name of the depositor or in the name of any other person, other than any amount in a trust fund described in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 1817(i) of this title or any funds described in section 1817(i)(3) of this title.

(D) Coverage for certain employee benefit plan deposits

(i) Pass-through insurance

The Corporation shall provide pass-through deposit insurance for the deposits of any employee benefit plan.

(ii) Prohibition on acceptance of benefit plan deposits

An insured depository institution that is not well capitalized or adequately capitalized may not accept employee benefit plan deposits.

(iii) Definitions

For purposes of this subparagraph, the following definitions shall apply:

(I) Capital standards

The terms "well capitalized" and "adequately capitalized" have the same meanings as in section 1831o of this title.

(II) Employee benefit plan

The term "employee benefit plan" has the same meaning as in paragraph (5)(B)(ii), and includes any eligible deferred compensation plan described in section 457 of title 26.

(III) Pass-through deposit insurance

The term "pass-through deposit insurance" means, with respect to an employee benefit plan, deposit insurance coverage based on the interest of each participant, in accordance with regulations issued by the Corporation.

(E) Standard maximum deposit insurance amount defined

For purposes of this chapter, the term "standard maximum deposit insurance amount" means $250,000, adjusted as provided under subparagraph (F) after March 31, 2010. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the increase in the standard maximum deposit insurance amount to $250,000 shall apply to depositors in any institution for which the Corporation was appointed as receiver or conservator on or after January 1, 2008, and before October 3, 2008. The Corporation shall take such actions as are necessary to carry out the requirements of this section with respect to such depositors, without regard to any time limitations under this chapter. In implementing this and the preceding 2 sentences, any payment on a deposit claim made by the Corporation as receiver or conservator to a depositor above the standard maximum deposit insurance amount in effect at the time of the appointment of the Corporation as receiver or conservator shall be deemed to be part of the net amount due to the depositor under subparagraph (B).

(F) Inflation adjustment

(i) In general

By April 1 of 2010, and the 1st day of each subsequent 5-year period, the Board of Directors and the National Credit Union Administration Board shall jointly consider the factors set forth under clause (v), and, upon determining that an inflation adjustment is appropriate, shall jointly prescribe the amount by which the standard maximum deposit insurance amount and the standard maximum share insurance amount (as defined in section 1787(k) of this title) applicable to any depositor at an insured depository institution shall be increased by calculating the product of-

(I) $100,000; and

(II) the ratio of the published annual value of the Personal Consumption Expenditures Chain-Type Price Index (or any successor index thereto), published by the Department of Commerce, for the calendar year preceding the year in which the adjustment is calculated under this clause, to the published annual value of such index for the calendar year preceding April 1, 2006.

The values used in the calculation under subclause (II) shall be, as of the date of the calculation, the values most recently published by the Department of Commerce.

(ii) Rounding

If the amount determined under clause (ii) for any period is not a multiple of $10,000, the amount so determined shall be rounded down to the nearest $10,000.

(iii) Publication and report to the Congress

Not later than April 5 of any calendar year in which an adjustment is required to be calculated under clause (i) to the standard maximum deposit insurance amount and the standard maximum share insurance amount under such clause, the Board of Directors and the National Credit Union Administration Board shall-

(I) publish in the Federal Register the standard maximum deposit insurance amount, the standard maximum share insurance amount, and the amount of coverage under paragraph (3)(A) and section 1787(k)(3) of this title, as so calculated; and

(II) jointly submit a report to the Congress containing the amounts described in subclause (I).

(iv) 6-month implementation period

Unless an Act of Congress enacted before July 1 of the calendar year in which an adjustment is required to be calculated under clause (i) provides otherwise, the increase in the standard maximum deposit insurance amount and the standard maximum share insurance amount shall take effect on January 1 of the year immediately succeeding such calendar year.

(v) Inflation adjustment consideration

In making any determination under clause (i) to increase the standard maximum deposit insurance amount and the standard maximum share insurance amount, the Board of Directors and the National Credit Union Administration Board shall jointly consider-

(I) the overall state of the Deposit Insurance Fund and the economic conditions affecting insured depository institutions;

(II) potential problems affecting insured depository institutions; or

(III) whether the increase will cause the reserve ratio of the fund to fall below 1.15 percent of estimated insured deposits.

(2) Government depositors

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any limitation in this chapter or in any other provision of law relating to the amount of deposit insurance available to any 1 depositor-

(i) a government depositor shall, for the purpose of determining the amount of insured deposits under this subsection, be deemed to be a depositor separate and distinct from any other officer, employee, or agent of the United States or any public unit referred to in subparagraph (B); and

(ii) except as provided in subparagraph (C), the deposits of a government depositor shall be insured in an amount equal to the standard maximum deposit insurance amount (as determined under paragraph (1)).

(B) Government depositor

In this paragraph, the term "government depositor" means a depositor that is-

(i) an officer, employee, or agent of the United States having official custody of public funds and lawfully investing or depositing the same in time and savings deposits in an insured depository institution;

(ii) an officer, employee, or agent of any State of the United States, or of any county, municipality, or political subdivision thereof having official custody of public funds and lawfully investing or depositing the same in time and savings deposits in an insured depository institution in such State;

(iii) an officer, employee, or agent of the District of Columbia having official custody of public funds and lawfully investing or depositing the same in time and savings deposits in an insured depository institution in the District of Columbia;

(iv) an officer, employee, or agent of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, of the Virgin Islands, of American Samoa, of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or of Guam, or of any county, municipality, or political subdivision thereof having official custody of public funds and lawfully investing or depositing the same in time and savings deposits in an insured depository institution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or Guam, respectively; or

(v) an officer, employee, or agent of any Indian tribe (as defined in section 1452(c) of title 25) or agency thereof having official custody of tribal funds and lawfully investing or depositing the same in time and savings deposits in an insured depository institution.

(C) Authority to limit deposits

The Corporation may limit the aggregate amount of funds that may be invested or deposited in deposits in any insured depository institution by any government depositor on the basis of the size of any such bank 1 in terms of its assets: Provided, however, such limitation may be exceeded by the pledging of acceptable securities to the government depositor when and where required.

(3) Certain retirement accounts

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any limitation in this chapter relating to the amount of deposit insurance available for the account of any 1 depositor, deposits in an insured depository institution made in connection with-

(i) any individual retirement account described in section 408(a) of title 26;

(ii) subject to the exception contained in paragraph (1)(D)(ii), any eligible deferred compensation plan described in section 457 of title 26; and

(iii) any individual account plan defined in section 1002(34) of title 29, and any plan described in section 401(d) of title 26, to the extent that participants and beneficiaries under such plan have the right to direct the investment of assets held in individual accounts maintained on their behalf by the plan,

shall be aggregated and insured in an amount not to exceed $250,000 (which amount shall be subject to inflation adjustments as provided in paragraph (1)(F), except that $250,000 shall be substituted for $100,000 wherever such term appears in such paragraph) per participant per insured depository institution.

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