The Secretary of State shall perform such duties as shall from time to time be enjoined on or intrusted to him by the President relative to correspondences, commissions, or instructions to or with public ministers or consuls from the United States, or to negotiations with public ministers from foreign states or princes, or to memorials or other applications from foreign public ministers or other foreigners, or to such other matters respecting foreign affairs as the President of the United States shall assign to the Department, and he shall conduct the business of the Department in such manner as the President shall direct.
Cite as 22 U.S.C. § 2656 Source: R.S. §202. Notes from the Office of Law Revision Counsel current through 12/14/2019 CODIFICATION
R.S. §202 derived from acts July 27, 1789, ch. 4, §1, 1 Stat. 28; Sept. 15, 1789, ch. 14, §1, 1 Stat. 68.
Section was formerly classified to section 156 of Title 5 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, by Pub. L. 89-554, §1, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378.
CONSTRUCTION Pub. L. , 115-409 § 412 , Dec. 31, , 132 Stat. 5411, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 2018 Amendment note set out under section 2018 of this title] may be construed as authorizing the use of military force." 2651 DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS
Functions of President respecting certain facilities constructed and maintained on United States borders delegated to Secretary of State, see Ex. Ord. No. 11423, Aug. 16, 1968, 33 F.R. 11741, set out as a note under section
of Title 3, The President. 301 PRESIDENTIAL DIRECTIVE
National Intelligence Authority and Central Intelligence Group, established by Presidential Directive, Feb. 1, 1946, 11 F.R. 1337, to coordinate Federal foreign intelligence activities, ceased to exist upon creation of Central Intelligence Agency; personnel, property and records of the group were transferred to the Agency; and unexpended funds of the group were made available to the Agency, by act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §102, 61 Stat. 497, formerly set out as section
of Title 50, War and National Defense. See Prior Provisions note under section 403 of Title 50. 3023 GENOCIDE AND ATROCITIES PREVENTION
Pub. L. 115-441, §§3, Jan. 14, 2019, 6, Jan. 14, 2019, 7, Jan. 14, 2019, 132 Stat. 5586, 5588, 5589, provided that:
"SEC. 3. STATEMENT OF POLICY.
"It shall be the policy of the United States to-
"(1) regard the prevention of atrocities as in its national interest;
"(2) work with partners and allies, including to build their capacity, and enhance the capacity of the United States, to identify, prevent, and respond to the causes of atrocities, including insecurity, mass displacement, violent conflict, and other conditions that may lead to such atrocities; and
"(3) pursue a United States Government-wide strategy to identify, prevent, and respond to the risk of atrocities by-
"(A) strengthening the diplomatic, risk analysis and monitoring, strategic planning, early warning, and response capacities of the Government;
"(B) improving the use of foreign assistance to respond early, effectively, and urgently in order to address the causes of atrocities;
"(C) strengthening diplomatic response and the effective use of foreign assistance to support appropriate transitional justice measures, including criminal accountability, for past atrocities;
"(D) supporting and strengthening local civil society, including human rights defenders and others working to help prevent and respond to atrocities;
"(E) promoting financial transparency and enhancing anti-corruption initiatives as part of addressing causes of conditions that may lead to atrocities; and
"(F) employing a variety of unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral means to prevent and respond to atrocities by-
"(i) placing a high priority on timely, preventive diplomatic efforts; and
"(ii) exercising leadership in promoting international efforts to prevent atrocities.
"SEC. 6. DEFINITIONS.
"In this Act [see Short Title of 2019 Amendment note set out under section
of this title]- 2651
"(1) the term 'genocide' means an offense under subsection (a) of section
of title 18, United States Code; 1091
"(2) the term 'atrocities' means war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide;
"(3) the term 'transitional justice' means the range of judicial, nonjudicial, formal, informal, retributive, and restorative measures employed by countries transitioning out of armed conflict or repressive regimes to redress legacies of atrocities and to promote long-term, sustainable peace; and
"(4) the term 'war crime' has the meaning given the term in section
2441 (c) of title 18, United States Code.
"SEC. 7. RULE OF CONSTRUCTION.
"Nothing in this Act shall be construed as authorizing the use of military force."
UNITED STATES POLICY AND DIPLOMATIC STRATEGY IN THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION Pub. L. , 132 Stat. 5389, provided that: 115-409
"SEC. 101. POLICY.
"It is the policy of the United States to develop and commit to a long-term strategic vision and a comprehensive, multifaceted, and principled United States policy for the Indo-Pacific region that-
"(1) secures the vital national security interests of the United States and our allies and partners;
"(2) promotes American prosperity and economic interests by advancing economic growth and development of a rules-based Indo-Pacific economic community;
"(3) advances American influence by reflecting the values of the American people and universal human rights;
"(4) supports functional problem-solving regional architecture; and
"(5) accords with and supports the rule of law and international norms.
"SEC. 102. DIPLOMATIC STRATEGY.
"It is the diplomatic strategy of the United States-
"(1) to work with United States allies-
"(A) to confront common challenges;
"(B) to improve information sharing;
"(C) to increase defense investment and trade;
"(D) to ensure interoperability; and
"(E) to strengthen shared capabilities;
"(2) to strengthen relationships with partners who-
"(A) share mutual respect for the rule of law;
"(B) agree with fair and reciprocal trade; and
"(C) understand the importance of civil society, the rule of law, the free and reliable flow of information, and transparent governance;
"(3) to support functional problem-solving regional architecture, including through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the East Asia Summit;
"(4) to emphasize the commitment of the United States-
"(A) to freedom of navigation under international law;
"(B) to promote peaceful resolutions of maritime and territorial disputes; and
"(C) to expand security and defense cooperation with allies and partners, as appropriate;
"(5) to pursue diplomatic measures to achieve complete, verifiable, and irreversible denuclearization of North Korea;
"(6) to improve civil society, strengthen the rule of law, and advocate for transparent governance;
"(7) to develop and grow the economy through private sector partnerships between the United States and Indo-Pacific partners;
"(8) to pursue multilateral and bilateral trade agreements in a free, fair, and reciprocal manner and build a network of partners in the Indo-Pacific committed to free markets;
"(9) to work with and encourage Indo-Pacific countries-
"(A) to pursue high-quality and transparent infrastructure projects;
"(B) to maintain unimpeded commerce, open sea lines or air ways, and communication; and
"(C) to seek the peaceful resolution of disputes; and
"(10) to sustain a strong military presence in the Indo-Pacific region and strengthen security relationships with allies and partners throughout the region."
[Nothing in title I of
Pub. L. set out above, to be construed as authorizing the use of military force, see 115-409 section of 412 Pub. L. set out as a note above.] 115-409 IRAQ AND SYRIA GENOCIDE RELIEF AND ACCOUNTABILITY Pub. L. , 132 Stat. 4390, provided that: 115-300
"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
"This Act may be cited as the 'Iraq and Syria Genocide Relief and Accountability Act of 2018'.
"SEC. 2. FINDINGS.
"Congress finds the following:
"(1) The Secretary of State of State [sic] declared on March 17, 2016, and on August 15, 2017, that Daesh (also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or ISIS) is responsible for genocide, crimes against humanity, and other atrocity crimes against religious and ethnic minority groups in Iraq and Syria, including Christians, Yezidis, and Shia, among other religious and ethnic groups.
"(2) According to the Department of State's annual reports on international religious freedom-
"(A) the number of Christians living in Iraq has dropped from an estimated 800,000 to 1,400,000 in 2002 to fewer than 250,000 in 2017; and
"(B) the number of Yezidis living in Iraq has fluctuated from 500,000 in 2013, to between 350,000 and 400,000 in 2016, and between 600,000 and 750,000 in 2017.
"(3) The annual reports on international religious freedom further suggest that-
"(A) Christian communities living in Syria, which had accounted for between 8 and 10 percent of Syria's total population in 2010, are now 'considerably' smaller as a result of the civil war, and
"(B) there was a population of approximately 80,000 Yezidis before the commencement of the conflict in Syria.
"(4) Local communities and entities have sought to mitigate the impact of violence directed against religious and ethnic minorities in Iraq and Syria, including the Chaldean Catholic Archdiocese of Erbil (Kurdistan Region of Iraq), which has used predominantly private funds to provide assistance to internally displaced Christians, Yezidis, and Muslims throughout the greater Erbil region, while significant needs and diminishing resources have made it increasingly difficult to continue these efforts.
"SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.
"In this Act:
"(1) APPROPRIATE CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES.-The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means-
"(A) the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate;
"(B) the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate;
"(C) the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate;