43 U.S.C. § 31k National Volcano Early Warning and Monitoring System

LibraryUnited States Statutes
Edition2023 Edition
CurrencyCurrent through P.L. 118-19 (published on www.congress.gov on 10/06/2023)

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary, acting through the Director of the United States Geological Survey.

(2) Secretary of Commerce

The term "Secretary of Commerce" means the Secretary of Commerce, acting through the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere.

(3) System

The term "System" means the National Volcano Early Warning and Monitoring System established under subsection (b)(1)(A).

(4) Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

The term "Volcanic Ash Advisory Center" means an entity designated by the International Civil Aviation Organization that is responsible for informing aviation interests about the presence of volcanic ash in the airspace.

(b) National Volcano Early Warning and Monitoring System

(1) Establishment

(A) In general

The Secretary shall establish within the United States Geological Survey a system, to be known as the "National Volcano Early Warning and Monitoring System", to monitor, warn, and protect citizens of the United States from undue and avoidable harm from volcanic activity.

(B) Purposes

The purposes of the System are-

(i) to organize, modernize, standardize, and stabilize the monitoring systems of the volcano observatories in the United States, which includes the Alaska Volcano Observatory, California Volcano Observatory, Cascades Volcano Observatory, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory;

(ii) to unify the monitoring systems of volcano observatories in the United States into a single interoperative system; and

(iii) to strengthen the warning and monitoring systems of volcano observatories in the United States by integrating relevant capacities of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, including with the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers located in Anchorage, Alaska, and Washington, D.C., to observe and model emissions of gases, aerosols, and ash, atmospheric dynamics and chemistry, and ocean chemistry resulting from volcanic eruptions.

(C) Objective

The objective of the System is to monitor all the volcanoes in the United States at a level commensurate with the threat posed by the volcanoes by-

(i) upgrading existing networks on monitored volcanoes;

(ii) installing new networks on unmonitored volcanoes; and

(iii) employing geodetic and other components when applicable.

(2) System components

(A) In general

The System shall include-

(i) a national volcano watch office that is operational 24 hours a day and 7 days a week;

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