16 U.S.C. § 1855 - Other requirements and authority
|Cite as:||16 U.S.C. § 1855|
|Currency:||Current through P.L. 116-135 (03/26/2020)|
(a) Gear evaluation and notification of entry
(1) Not later than 18 months after October 11, 1996, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register, after notice and an opportunity for public comment, a list of all fisheries-
(A) under the authority of each Council and all fishing gear used in such fisheries, based on information submitted by the Councils under section 1853(a) of this title; and
(B) to which section 1852(a)(3) of this title applies and all fishing gear used in such fisheries.
(2) The Secretary shall include with such list guidelines for determining when fishing gear or a fishery is sufficiently different from those listed as to require notification under paragraph (3).
(3) Effective 180 days after the publication of such list, no person or vessel may employ fishing gear or engage in a fishery not included on such list without giving 90 days advance written notice to the appropriate Council, or the Secretary with respect to a fishery to which section 1852(a)(3) of this title applies. A signed return receipt shall serve as adequate evidence of such notice and as the date upon which the 90-day period begins.
(4) A Council may submit to the Secretary any proposed changes to such list or such guidelines the Council deems appropriate. The Secretary shall publish a revised list, after notice and an opportunity for public comment, upon receiving any such proposed changes from a Council.
(5) A Council may request the Secretary to promulgate emergency regulations under subsection (c) to prohibit any persons or vessels from using an unlisted fishing gear or engaging in an unlisted fishery if the appropriate Council, or the Secretary for fisheries to which section 1852(a)(3) of this title applies, determines that such unlisted gear or unlisted fishery would compromise the effectiveness of conservation and management efforts under this chapter.
(6) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to permit a person or vessel to engage in fishing or employ fishing gear when such fishing or gear is prohibited or restricted by regulation under a fishery management plan or plan amendment, or under other applicable law.
(b) Fish habitat
(A) The Secretary shall, within 6 months of October 11, 1996, establish by regulation guidelines to assist the Councils in the description and identification of essential fish habitat in fishery management plans (including adverse impacts on such habitat) and in the consideration of actions to ensure the conservation and enhancement of such habitat. The Secretary shall set forth a schedule for the amendment of fishery management plans to include the identification of essential fish habitat and for the review and updating of such identifications based on new scientific evidence or other relevant information.
(B) The Secretary, in consultation with participants in the fishery, shall provide each Council with recommendations and information regarding each fishery under that Council's authority to assist it in the identification of essential fish habitat, the adverse impacts on that habitat, and the actions that should be considered to ensure the conservation and enhancement of that habitat.
(C) The Secretary shall review programs administered by the Department of Commerce and ensure that any relevant programs further the conservation and enhancement of essential fish habitat.
(D) The Secretary shall coordinate with and provide information to other Federal agencies to further the conservation and enhancement of essential fish habitat.
(2) Each Federal agency shall consult with the Secretary with respect to any action authorized, funded, or undertaken, or proposed to be authorized, funded, or undertaken, by such agency that may adversely affect any essential fish habitat identified under this chapter.
(3) Each Council-
(A) may comment on and make recommendations to the Secretary and any Federal or State agency concerning any activity authorized, funded, or undertaken, or proposed to be authorized, funded, or undertaken, by any Federal or State agency that, in the view of the Council, may affect the habitat, including essential fish habitat, of a fishery resource under its authority; and
(B) shall comment on and make recommendations to the Secretary and any Federal or State agency concerning any such activity that, in the view of the Council, is likely to substantially affect the habitat, including essential fish habitat, of an anadromous fishery resource under its authority.
(A) If the Secretary receives information from a Council or Federal or State agency or determines from other sources that an action authorized, funded, or undertaken, or proposed to be authorized, funded, or undertaken, by any State or Federal agency would adversely affect any essential fish habitat identified under this chapter, the Secretary shall recommend to such agency measures that can be taken by such agency to conserve such habitat.
(B) Within 30 days after receiving a recommendation under subparagraph (A), a Federal agency shall provide a detailed response in writing to any Council commenting under paragraph (3) and the Secretary regarding the matter. The response shall include a description of measures proposed by the agency for avoiding, mitigating, or offsetting the impact of the activity on such habitat. In the case of a response that is inconsistent with the recommendations of the Secretary, the Federal agency shall explain its reasons for not following the recommendations.
(c) Emergency actions and interim measures
(1) If the Secretary finds that an emergency exists or that interim measures are needed to reduce overfishing for any fishery, he may promulgate emergency regulations or interim measures necessary to address the emergency or overfishing, without regard to whether a fishery management plan exists for such fishery.
(2) If a Council finds that an emergency exists or that interim measures are needed to reduce overfishing for any fishery within its jurisdiction, whether or not a fishery management plan exists for such fishery-
(A) the Secretary shall promulgate emergency regulations or interim measures under paragraph (1) to address the emergency or overfishing if the Council, by unanimous vote of the members who are voting members, requests the taking of such action; and
(B) the Secretary may promulgate emergency regulations or interim measures under paragraph (1) to address the emergency or overfishing if the Council, by less than a unanimous vote, requests the taking of such action.
(3) Any emergency regulation or interim measure which changes any existing fishery management plan or amendment shall be treated as an amendment to such plan for the period in which such regulation is in effect. Any emergency regulation or interim measure promulgated under this subsection-
(A) shall be published in the Federal Register together with the reasons therefor;
(B) shall, except as provided in subparagraph (C), remain in effect for not more than 180 days after the date of publication, and may be extended by publication in the Federal Register for one additional period of not more than 186 days, provided the public has had an opportunity to comment on the emergency regulation or interim measure, and, in the case of a Council recommendation for emergency regulations or interim measures, the Council is actively preparing a fishery management plan, plan amendment, or proposed regulations to address the emergency or overfishing on a permanent basis;
(C) that responds to a public health emergency or an oil spill may remain in effect until the circumstances that created the emergency no longer exist, Provided, That the public has an opportunity to comment after the regulation is published, and, in the case of a public health emergency, the Secretary of Health and Human Services concurs with the Secretary's action; and
(D) may be terminated by the Secretary at an earlier date by publication in the Federal Register of a notice of termination, except for emergency regulations or interim measures promulgated under paragraph (2) in which case such early termination may be made only upon the agreement of the Secretary and the Council concerned.
(d) Responsibility of Secretary
The Secretary shall have general responsibility to carry out any fishery management plan or amendment approved or prepared by him, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. The Secretary may promulgate such regulations, in accordance with section 553 of title 5, as may be necessary to discharge such responsibility or to carry out any other provision of this chapter.
(e) Effect of certain laws on certain time requirements
The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 ( 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.),1 the Regulatory Flexibility Act ( 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), and Executive Order Numbered 12866, dated September 30, 1993, shall be complied with within the time limitations specified in subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 1854 of this title as they apply to the functions of the Secretary under such provisions.
(f) Judicial review
(1) Regulations promulgated by the Secretary under this chapter and actions described in paragraph (2) shall be subject to judicial review to the extent authorized by, and in accordance with, chapter 7 of title 5, if a petition for such review is filed within 30 days after the date on which the regulations are promulgated or the action is published in the Federal Register, as applicable; except that-
(A) section 705 of such title is not applicable, and
(B) the appropriate court shall only set aside any such regulation or action on a ground specified in section 706(2)(A), (B), (C), or (D) of such title.
(2) The actions referred to in paragraph (1) are actions that are taken by the Secretary under regulations which implement a fishery management plan, including but not limited to actions that establish the date of closure of a fishery to commercial or recreational fishing.
(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall file a response to any petition filed in accordance with paragraph (1), not later than 45 days after the date the Secretary is served with that petition, except that the appropriate court may extend the period for filing such a response upon a showing by the Secretary of good cause for that extension.
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