42 U.S.C. 1395ww - Payments to hospitals for inpatient hospital services

Cite as42 U.S.C. 1395ww

(a) Determination of costs for inpatient hospital services; limitations; exemptions; "operating costs of inpatient hospital services" defined

(1)

(A)

(i) The Secretary, in determining the amount of the payments that may be made under this subchapter with respect to operating costs of inpatient hospital services (as defined in paragraph (4)) shall not recognize as reasonable (in the efficient delivery of health services) costs for the provision of such services by a hospital for a cost reporting period to the extent such costs exceed the applicable percentage (as determined under clause (ii)) of the average of such costs for all hospitals in the same grouping as such hospital for comparable time periods.

(ii) For purposes of clause (i), the applicable percentage for hospital cost reporting periods beginning-

(I) on or after October 1, 1982, and before October 1, 1983, is 120 percent;

(II) on or after October 1, 1983, and before October 1, 1984, is 115 percent; and

(III) on or after October 1, 1984, is 110 percent.

(B)

(i) For purposes of subparagraph (A) the Secretary shall establish case mix indexes for all short-term hospitals, and shall set limits for each hospital based upon the general mix of types of medical cases with respect to which such hospital provides services for which payment may be made under this subchapter.

(ii) The Secretary shall set such limits for a cost reporting period of a hospital-

(I) by updating available data for a previous period to the immediate preceding cost reporting period by the estimated average rate of change of hospital costs industry-wide, and

(II) by projecting for the cost reporting period by the applicable percentage increase (as defined in subsection (b)(3)(B)).

(C) The limitation established under subparagraph (A) for any hospital shall in no event be lower than the allowable operating costs of inpatient hospital services (as defined in paragraph (4)) recognized under this subchapter for such hospital for such hospital's last cost reporting period prior to the hospital's first cost reporting period for which this section is in effect.

(D) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 1983.

(2) The Secretary shall provide for such exemptions from, and exceptions and adjustments to, the limitation established under paragraph (1)(A) as he deems appropriate, including those which he deems necessary to take into account-

(A) the special needs of sole community hospitals, of new hospitals, of risk based health maintenance organizations, and of hospitals which provide atypical services or essential community services, and to take into account extraordinary circumstances beyond the hospital's control, medical and paramedical education costs, significantly fluctuating population in the service area of the hospital, and unusual labor costs,

(B) the special needs of psychiatric hospitals and of public or other hospitals that serve a significantly disproportionate number of patients who have low income or are entitled to benefits under part A of this subchapter, and

(C) a decrease in the inpatient hospital services that a hospital provides and that are customarily provided directly by similar hospitals which results in a significant distortion in the operating costs of inpatient hospital services.

(3) The limitation established under paragraph (1)(A) shall not apply with respect to any hospital which-

(A) is located outside of a standard metropolitan statistical area, and

(B)

(i) has less than 50 beds, and

(ii) was in operation and had less than 50 beds on September 3, 1982.

(4) For purposes of this section, the term "operating costs of inpatient hospital services" includes all routine operating costs, ancillary service operating costs, and special care unit operating costs with respect to inpatient hospital services as such costs are determined on an average per admission or per discharge basis (as determined by the Secretary), and includes the costs of all services for which payment may be made under this subchapter that are provided by the hospital (or by an entity wholly owned or operated by the hospital) to the patient during the 3 days (or, in the case of a hospital that is not a subsection (d) hospital, during the 1 day) immediately preceding the date of the patient's admission if such services are diagnostic services (including clinical diagnostic laboratory tests) or are other services related to the admission (as defined by the Secretary). Such term does not include costs of approved educational activities, a return on equity capital, other capital-related costs (as defined by the Secretary for periods before October 1, 1987), for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2020, costs related to hematopoietic stem cell acquisition for the purpose of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (as described in subsection (d)(5)(M)), or costs with respect to administering blood clotting factors to individuals with hemophilia. In applying the first sentence of this paragraph, the term "other services related to the admission" includes all services that are not diagnostic services (other than ambulance and maintenance renal dialysis services) for which payment may be made under this subchapter that are provided by a hospital (or an entity wholly owned or operated by the hospital) to a patient-

(A) on the date of the patient's inpatient admission; or

(B) during the 3 days (or, in the case of a hospital that is not a subsection (d) hospital, during the 1 day) immediately preceding the date of such admission unless the hospital demonstrates (in a form and manner, and at a time, specified by the Secretary) that such services are not related (as determined by the Secretary) to such admission.

(b) Computation of payment; definitions; exemptions; adjustments

(1) Notwithstanding section 1395f(b) of this title but subject to the provisions of section 1395e of this title, if the operating costs of inpatient hospital services (as defined in subsection (a)(4)) of a hospital (other than a subsection (d) hospital, as defined in subsection (d)(1)(B) and other than a rehabilitation facility described in subsection (j)(1)) for a cost reporting period subject to this paragraph-

(A) are less than or equal to the target amount (as defined in paragraph (3)) for that hospital for that period, the amount of the payment with respect to such operating costs payable under part A on a per discharge or per admission basis (as the case may be) shall be equal to the amount of such operating costs, plus-

(i) 15 percent of the amount by which the target amount exceeds the amount of the operating costs, or

(ii) 2 percent of the target amount,

whichever is less;

(B) are greater than the target amount but do not exceed 110 percent of the target amount, the amount of the payment with respect to those operating costs payable under part A on a per discharge basis shall equal the target amount; or

(C) are greater than 110 percent of the target amount, the amount of the payment with respect to such operating costs payable under part A on a per discharge or per admission basis (as the case may be) shall be equal to (i) the target amount, plus (ii) in the case of cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 1991, an additional amount equal to 50 percent of the amount by which the operating costs exceed 110 percent of the target amount (except that such additional amount may not exceed 10 percent of the target amount) after any exceptions or adjustments are made to such target amount for the cost reporting period;

plus the amount, if any, provided under paragraph (2), except that in no case may the amount payable under this subchapter (other than on the basis of a DRG prospective payment rate determined under subsection (d)) with respect to operating costs of inpatient hospital services exceed the maximum amount payable with respect to such costs pursuant to subsection (a).

(2)

(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (E), in addition to the payment computed under paragraph (1), in the case of an eligible hospital (described in subparagraph (B)) for a cost reporting period beginning on or after October 1, 1997, the amount of payment on a per discharge basis under paragraph (1) shall be increased by the lesser of-

(i) 50 percent of the amount by which the operating costs are less than the expected costs (as defined in subparagraph (D)) for the period; or

(ii) 1 percent of the target amount for the period.

(B) For purposes of this paragraph, an "eligible hospital" means with respect to a cost reporting period, a hospital-

(i) that has received payments under this subsection for at least 3 full cost reporting periods before that cost reporting period, and

(ii) whose operating costs for the period are less than the least of its target amount, its trended costs (as defined in subparagraph (C)), or its expected costs (as defined in subparagraph (D)) for the period.

(C) For purposes of subparagraph (B)(ii), the term "trended costs" means for a hospital cost reporting period ending in a fiscal year-

(i) in the case of a hospital for which its cost reporting period ending in fiscal year 1996 was its third or subsequent full cost reporting period for which it receives payments under this subsection, the lesser of the operating costs or target amount for that hospital for its cost reporting period ending in fiscal year 1996, or

(ii) in the case of any other hospital, the operating costs for that hospital for its third full cost reporting period for which it receives payments under this subsection,

increased (in a compounded manner) for each succeeding fiscal year (through the fiscal year involved) by the market basket percentage increase for the fiscal year.

(D) For purposes of this paragraph, the term "expected costs", with respect to the cost reporting period ending in a fiscal year, means the lesser of the operating costs of inpatient hospital services or target amount per discharge for the previous cost reporting period updated by the market basket percentage increase (as defined in paragraph (3)(B)(iii)) for the fiscal year.

To continue reading

Request your trial

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT