22 U.S.C. § 2370 - Prohibitions against furnishing assistance
|Cite as:||22 U.S.C. § 2370|
|Currency:||Current through P.L. 116-158 (08/14/2020)|
(a) Cuba; embargo on all trade
(1) No assistance shall be furnished under this chapter to the present government of Cuba. As an additional means of implementing and carrying into effect the policy of the preceding sentence, the President is authorized to establish and maintain a total embargo upon all trade between the United States and Cuba.
(2) Except as may be deemed necessary by the President in the interest of the United States, no assistance shall be furnished under this chapter to any government of Cuba, nor shall Cuba be entitled to receive any quota authorizing the importation of Cuban sugar into the United States or to receive any other benefit under any law of the United States, until the President determines that such government has taken appropriate steps according to international law standards to return to United States citizens, and to entities not less than 50 per centum beneficially owned by United States citizens, or to provide equitable compensation to such citizens and entities for property taken from such citizens and entities on or after January 1, 1959, by the Government of Cuba.
(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 97-113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560
(c) Indebtedness of foreign country to United States citizen or person
No assistance shall be provided under this chapter to the government of any country which is indebted to any United States citizen or person for goods or services furnished or ordered where (i) such citizen or person has exhausted available legal remedies, which shall include arbitration, or (ii) the debt is not denied or contested by such government, or (iii) such indebtedness arises under an unconditional guaranty of payment given by such government, or any predecessor government, directly or indirectly, through any controlled entity: Provided, That the President does not find such action contrary to the national security.
(d) Productive enterprises competing with United States enterprise; conditions on assistance; import controls; waiver of restriction by President
No assistance shall be furnished on a loan basis under part I of subchapter I of this chapter for construction or operation of any productive enterprise in any country where such enterprise will compete with United States enterprise unless such country has agreed that it will establish appropriate procedures to prevent the exportation for use or consumption in the United States of more than twenty per centum of the annual production of such facility during the life of the loan. In case of failure to implement such agreement by the other contracting party, the President is authorized to establish necessary import controls to effectuate the agreement. The restrictions imposed by or pursuant to this subsection may be waived by the President where he determines that such waiver is in the national security interest.
(e) Nationalization, expropriation or seizure of property of United States citizens, or taxation or other exaction having same effect; failure to compensate or to provide relief from taxes, exactions, or conditions; report on full value of property by Foreign Claims Settlement Commission; act of state doctrine
(1) The President shall suspend assistance to the government of any country to which assistance is provided under this chapter or any other Act when the government of such country or any government agency or subdivision within such country on or after January 1, 1962-
(A) has nationalized or expropriated or seized ownership or control of property owned by any United States citizen or by any corporation, partnership, or association not less than 50 per centum beneficially owned by United States citizens, or
(B) has taken steps to repudiate or nullify existing contracts or agreements with any United States citizen or any corporation, partnership, or association not less than 50 per centum beneficially owned by United States citizens, or
(C) has imposed or enforced discriminatory taxes or other exactions, or restrictive maintenance or operational conditions, or has taken other actions, which have the effect of nationalizing, expropriating, or otherwise seizing ownership or control of property so owned,
and such country, government agency, or government subdivision fails within a reasonable time (not more than six months after such action, or, in the event of a referral to the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States within such period as provided herein, not more than twenty days after the report of the Commission is received) to take appropriate steps, which may include arbitration, to discharge its obligations under international law toward such citizen or entity, including speedy compensation for such property in convertible foreign exchange, equivalent to the full value thereof, as required by international law, or fails to take steps designed to provide relief from such taxes, exactions, or conditions, as the case may be; and such suspension shall continue until the President is satisfied that appropriate steps are being taken, and provisions of this subsection shall not be waived with respect to any country unless the President determines and certifies that such a waiver is important to the national interests of the United States. Such certification shall be reported immediately to Congress.
Upon request of the President (within seventy days after such action referred to in subparagraphs (A), (B), or (C) of this paragraph, the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States (established pursuant to Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1954, 68 Stat. 1279) is hereby authorized to evaluate expropriated property, determining the full value of any property nationalized, expropriated, or seized, or subjected to discriminatory or other actions as aforesaid, for purposes of this subsection and to render an advisory report to the President within ninety days after such request. Unless authorized by the President, the Commission shall not publish its advisory report except to the citizen or entity owning such property. There is hereby authorized to be appropriated such amount, to remain available until expended, as may be necessary from time to time to enable the Commission to carry out expeditiously its functions under this subsection.
(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no court in the United States shall decline on the ground of the federal act of state doctrine to make a determination on the merits giving effect to the principles of international law in a case in which a claim of title or other rights to property is asserted by any party including a foreign state (or a party claiming through such state) based upon (or traced through) a confiscation or other taking after January 1, 1959, by an act of that state in violation of the principles of international law, including the principles of compensation and the other standards set out in this subsection: Provided, That this subparagraph shall not be applicable (1) in any case in which an act of a foreign state is not contrary to international law or with respect to a claim of title or other right to property acquired pursuant to an irrevocable letter of credit of not more than 180 days duration issued in good faith prior to the time of the confiscation or other taking, or (2) in any case with respect to which the President determines that application of the act of state doctrine is required in that particular case by the foreign policy interests of the United States and a suggestion to this effect is filed on his behalf in that case with the court.
(f) Prohibition against assistance to Communist countries; conditions for waiver of restriction by President; enumeration of Communist countries; removal from application of provisions; preconditions
(1) No assistance shall be furnished under this chapter, (except section 2174(b) of this title) to any Communist country. This restriction may not be waived pursuant to any authority contained in this chapter unless the President finds and promptly reports to Congress that:
(A) such assistance is vital to the security of the United States;
(B) the recipient country is not controlled by the international Communist conspiracy; and
(C) such assistance will further promote the independence of the recipient country from international communism. For the purposes of this subsection, the phrase "Communist country" includes specifically, but is not limited to, the following countries:
Democratic People's Republic of Korea,
People's Republic of China,
Republic of Cuba,
Socialist Republic of Vietnam,
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, the President may remove a country, for such period as the President determines, from the application of this subsection, and other provisions which reference this subsection, if the President determines and reports to the Congress that such action is important to the national interest of the United States. It is the sense of the Congress that when consideration is given to authorizing assistance to a country removed from the application of this subsection, one of the factors to be weighed, among others, is whether the country in question is giving evidence of fostering the establishment of a genuinely democratic system, with respect for internationally recognized human rights.
(g) Use of assistance funds to compensate owners for expropriated or nationalized property; waiver for land reform programs
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no monetary assistance shall be made available under this chapter to any government or political subdivision or agency of such government which will be used to compensate owners for expropriated or nationalized property and, upon finding by the President that such assistance has been used by any government for such purpose, no further assistance under this chapter shall be furnished to such government until appropriate reimbursement is made to the United States for sums so diverted. This prohibition shall not apply to monetary assistance made available for use by a government (or a political subdivision or agency of a government) to compensate nationals of that country in accordance with a land reform program, if the President determines that monetary assistance for such land reform program will further the national interests of the United States.
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