12 U.S.C. § 1828 - Regulations governing insured depository institutions
|Cite as:||12 U.S.C. § 1828|
|Currency:||Current through P.L. 116-158 (08/14/2020)|
(a) Representations of deposit insurance
(1) Insured depository institutions
(A) In general
Each insured depository institution shall display at each place of business maintained by that institution a sign or signs relating to the insurance of the deposits of the institution, in accordance with regulations to be prescribed by the Corporation.
(B) Statement to be included
Each sign required under subparagraph (A) shall include a statement that insured deposits are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government.
The Corporation shall prescribe regulations to carry out this subsection, including regulations governing the substance of signs required by paragraph (1) and the manner of display or use of such signs.
For each day that an insured depository institution continues to violate paragraph (1) or any regulation issued under paragraph (2), it shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $100, which the Corporation may recover for its use.
(4) False advertising, misuse of FDIC names, and misrepresentation to indicate insured status
(A) Prohibition on false advertising and misuse of FDIC names
No person may represent or imply that any deposit liability, obligation, certificate, or share is insured or guaranteed by the Corporation, if such deposit liability, obligation, certificate, or share is not insured or guaranteed by the Corporation-
(i) by using the terms "Federal Deposit", "Federal Deposit Insurance", "Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation", any combination of such terms, or the abbreviation "FDIC" as part of the business name or firm name of any person, including any corporation, partnership, business trust, association, or other business entity; or
(ii) by using such terms or any other terms, sign, or symbol as part of an advertisement, solicitation, or other document.
(B) Prohibition on misrepresentations of insured status
No person may knowingly misrepresent-
(i) that any deposit liability, obligation, certificate, or share is insured, under this chapter, if such deposit liability, obligation, certificate, or share is not so insured; or
(ii) the extent to which or the manner in which any deposit liability, obligation, certificate, or share is insured under this chapter, if such deposit liability, obligation, certificate, or share is not so insured, to the extent or in the manner represented.
(C) Authority of the appropriate Federal banking agency
The appropriate Federal banking agency shall have enforcement authority in the case of a violation of this paragraph by any person for which the agency is the appropriate Federal banking agency, or any institution-affiliated party thereof.
(D) Corporation authority if the appropriate Federal banking agency fails to follow recommendation
The Corporation may recommend in writing to the appropriate Federal banking agency that the agency take any enforcement action authorized under section 1818 of this title for purposes of enforcement of this paragraph with respect to any person for which the agency is the appropriate Federal banking agency or any institution-affiliated party thereof.
(ii) Agency response
If the appropriate Federal banking agency does not, within 30 days of the date of receipt of a recommendation under clause (i), take the enforcement action with respect to this paragraph recommended by the Corporation or provide a plan acceptable to the Corporation for responding to the situation presented, the Corporation may take the recommended enforcement action against such person or institution-affiliated party.
(E) Additional authority
In addition to its authority under subparagraphs (C) and (D), for purposes of this paragraph, the Corporation shall have, in the same manner and to the same extent as with respect to a State nonmember insured bank-
(i) jurisdiction over-
(I) any person other than a person for which another agency is the appropriate Federal banking agency or any institution-affiliated party thereof; and
(II) any person that aids or abets a violation of this paragraph by a person described in subclause (I); and
(ii) for purposes of enforcing the requirements of this paragraph, the authority of the Corporation under-
(I) section 1820(c) of this title to conduct investigations; and
(II) subsections (b), (c), (d) and (i) of section 1818 of this title to conduct enforcement actions.
(F) Other actions preserved
No provision of this paragraph shall be construed as barring any action otherwise available, under the laws of the United States or any State, to any Federal or State agency or individual.
(b) Payment of dividends by defaulting depository institutions
No insured depository institution shall pay any dividends on its capital stock or interest on its capital notes or debentures (if such interest is required to be paid only out of net profits) or distribute any of its capital assets while it remains in default in the payment of any assessment due to the Corporation; and any director or officer of any insured depository institution who participates in the declaration or payment of any such dividend or interest or in any such distribution shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both: Provided, That, if such default is due to a dispute between the insured depository institution and the Corporation over the amount of such assessment, this subsection shall not apply if the insured depository institution deposits security satisfactory to the Corporation for payment upon final determination of the issue.
(c) Merger transactions; consent of banking agencies; emergency approval; notice; uniform standards; antitrust actions; review de novo; limitations; report to Congress; money laundering; applicability
(1) Except with the prior written approval of the responsible agency, which shall in every case referred to in this paragraph be the Corporation, no insured depository institution shall-
(A) merge or consolidate with any noninsured bank or institution;
(B) assume liability to pay any deposits (including liabilities which would be "deposits" except for the proviso in section 1813(l)(5) of this title) made in, or similar liabilities of, any noninsured bank or institution; or
(C) transfer assets to any noninsured bank or institution in consideration of the assumption of liabilities for any portion of the deposits made in such insured depository institution.
(2) No insured depository institution shall merge or consolidate with any other insured depository institution or, either directly or indirectly, acquire the assets of, or assume liability to pay any deposits made in, any other insured depository institution except with the prior written approval of the responsible agency, which shall be-
(A) the Comptroller of the Currency if the acquiring, assuming, or resulting bank is to be a national bank or a Federal savings association;
(B) the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System if the acquiring, assuming, or resulting bank is to be a State member bank; and
(C) the Corporation if the acquiring, assuming, or resulting bank is to be a State nonmember insured bank or a State savings association.
(3) Notice of any proposed transaction for which approval is required under paragraph (1) or (2) (referred to hereafter in this subsection as a "merger transaction") shall, unless the responsible agency finds that it must act immediately in order to prevent the probable default of one of the banks or savings associations involved, be published-
(A) prior to the granting of approval of such transaction,
(B) in a form approved by the responsible agency,
(C) at appropriate intervals during a period at least as long as the period allowed for furnishing reports under paragraph (4) of this subsection, and
(D) in a newspaper of general circulation in the community or communities where the main offices of the banks or savings associations involved are located, or, if there is no such newspaper in any such community, then in the newspaper of general circulation published nearest thereto.
(4) REPORTS ON COMPETITIVE FACTORS.-
(A) REQUEST FOR REPORT.-In the interests of uniform standards and subject to subparagraph (B), before acting on any application for approval of a merger transaction, the responsible agency shall-
(i) request a report on the competitive factors involved from the Attorney General of the United States; and
(ii) provide a copy of the request to the Corporation (when the Corporation is not the responsible agency).
(B) FURNISHING OF REPORT.-The report requested under subparagraph (A) shall be furnished by the Attorney General to the responsible agency-
(i) not later than 30 calendar days after the date on which the Attorney General received the request; or
(ii) not later than 10 calendar days after such date, if the requesting agency advises the Attorney General that an emergency exists requiring expeditious action.
(C) EXCEPTIONS.-A responsible agency may not be required to request a report under subparagraph (A) if-
(i) the responsible agency finds that it must act immediately in order to prevent the probable failure of 1 of the insured depository institutions involved in the merger transaction; or
(ii) the merger transaction involves solely an insured depository institution and 1 or more of the affiliates of such depository institution.
(5) The responsible agency shall not approve-
(A) any proposed merger transaction which would result in a monopoly, or which would be in furtherance of any combination or conspiracy to monopolize or to attempt to monopolize the business of banking in any part of the United States, or
(B) any other proposed merger transaction whose effect in any section of the country may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly, or which in any other manner would be in restraint of trade, unless it finds that the anticompetitive effects of the proposed transaction are clearly outweighed in the public interest by the probable effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served.
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