26 U.S.C. § 1256 - Section 1256 contracts marked to market
|Cite as:||26 U.S.C. § 1256|
|Currency:||Current through P.L. 116-135 (03/26/2020)|
(a) General rule
For purposes of this subtitle-
(1) each section 1256 contract held by the taxpayer at the close of the taxable year shall be treated as sold for its fair market value on the last business day of such taxable year (and any gain or loss shall be taken into account for the taxable year),
(2) proper adjustment shall be made in the amount of any gain or loss subsequently realized for gain or loss taken into account by reason of paragraph (1),
(3) any gain or loss with respect to a section 1256 contract shall be treated as-
(A) short-term capital gain or loss, to the extent of 40 percent of such gain or loss, and
(B) long-term capital gain or loss, to the extent of 60 percent of such gain or loss, and
(4) if all the offsetting positions making up any straddle consist of section 1256 contracts to which this section applies (and such straddle is not part of a larger straddle), sections 1092 and 263(g) shall not apply with respect to such straddle.
(b) Section 1256 contract defined
(1) In general
For purposes of this section, the term "section 1256 contract" means-
(A) any regulated futures contract,
(B) any foreign currency contract,
(C) any nonequity option,
(D) any dealer equity option, and
(E) any dealer securities futures contract.
The term "section 1256 contract" shall not include-
(A) any securities futures contract or option on such a contract unless such contract or option is a dealer securities futures contract, or
(B) any interest rate swap, currency swap, basis swap, interest rate cap, interest rate floor, commodity swap, equity swap, equity index swap, credit default swap, or similar agreement.
(c) Terminations, etc.
(1) In general
The rules of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (a) shall also apply to the termination (or transfer) during the taxable year of the taxpayer's obligation (or rights) with respect to a section 1256 contract by offsetting, by taking or making delivery, by exercise or being exercised, by assignment or being assigned, by lapse, or otherwise.
(2) Special rule where taxpayer takes delivery on or exercises part of straddle
(A) 2 or more section 1256 contracts are part of a straddle (as defined in section 1092(c)), and
(B) the taxpayer takes delivery under or exercises any of such contracts,
then, for purposes of this section, each of the other such contracts shall be treated as terminated on the day on which the taxpayer took delivery.
(3) Fair market value taken into account
For purposes of this subsection, fair market value at the time of the termination (or transfer) shall be taken into account.
(d) Elections with respect to mixed straddles
The taxpayer may elect to have this section not to apply to all section 1256 contracts which are part of a mixed straddle.
(2) Time and manner
An election under paragraph (1) shall be made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.
(3) Election revocable only with consent
An election under paragraph (1) shall apply to the taxpayer's taxable year for which made and to all subsequent taxable years, unless the Secretary consents to a revocation of such election.
(4) Mixed straddle
For purposes of this subsection, the term "mixed straddle" means any straddle (as defined in section 1092(c))-
(A) at least 1 (but not all) of the positions of which are section 1256 contracts, and
(B) with respect to which each position forming part of such straddle is clearly identified, before the close of the day on which the first section 1256 contract forming part of the straddle is acquired (or such earlier time as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations), as being part of such straddle.
(e) Mark to market not to apply to hedging transactions
(1) Section not to apply
Subsection (a) shall not apply in the case of a hedging transaction.
(2) Definition of hedging transaction
For purposes of this subsection, the term "hedging transaction" means any hedging transaction (as defined in section 1221(b)(2)(A)) if, before the close of the day on which such transaction was entered into (or such earlier time as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations), the taxpayer clearly identifies such transaction as being a hedging transaction.
(3) Special rule for syndicates
(A) In general
Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the term "hedging transaction" shall not include any transaction entered into by or for a syndicate.
(B) Syndicate defined
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "syndicate" means any partnership or other entity (other than a corporation which is not an S corporation) if more than 35 percent of the losses of such entity during the taxable year are allocable to limited partners or limited entrepreneurs (within the meaning of section 461(k)(4)).
(C) Holdings attributable to active management
For purposes of subparagraph (B), an interest in an entity shall not be treated as held by a limited partner or a limited entrepreneur (within the meaning of section 461(k)(4))-
(i) for any period if during such period such interest is held by an individual who actively participates at all times during such period in the management of such entity,
(ii) for any period if during such period such interest is held by the spouse, children, grandchildren, and parents of an individual who actively participates at all times during such period in the management of such entity,
(iii) if such interest is held by an individual who actively participated in the management of such entity for a period of not less than 5 years,
(iv) if such interest is held by the estate of an individual who actively participated in the management of such entity or is held by the estate of an individual if with respect to such individual such interest was at any time described in clause (ii), or
(v) if the Secretary determines (by regulations or otherwise) that such interest should be treated as held by an individual who actively participates in the management of such entity, and that such entity and such interest are not used (or to be used) for tax-avoidance purposes.
For purposes of this subparagraph, a legally adopted child of an individual shall be treated as a child of such individual by blood.
(4) Limitation on losses from hedging transactions
(A) In general
Any hedging loss for a taxable year which is allocable to any limited partner or limited entrepreneur (within the meaning of paragraph (3)) shall be allowed only to the extent of the taxable income of such limited partner or entrepreneur for such taxable year attributable to the trade or business in which the hedging transactions were entered into. For purposes of the preceding sentence, taxable income shall be determined by not taking into account items attributable to hedging transactions.
(ii) Carryover of disallowed loss
Any hedging loss disallowed under clause (i) shall be treated as a deduction attributable to a hedging transaction allowable in the first succeeding taxable year.
(B) Exception where economic loss
Subparagraph (A)(i) shall not apply to any hedging loss to the extent that such loss exceeds the aggregate unrecognized gains from hedging transactions as of the close of the taxable year attributable to the trade or business in which the hedging transactions were entered into.
(C) Exception for certain hedging transactions
In the case of any hedging transaction relating to property other than stock or securities, this paragraph shall apply only in the case of a taxpayer described in section 465(a)(1).
(D) Hedging loss
The term "hedging loss" means the excess of-
(i) the deductions allowable under this chapter for the taxable year attributable to hedging transactions (determined without regard to subparagraph (A)(i)), over
(ii) income received or accrued by the taxpayer during such taxable year from such transactions.
(E) Unrecognized gain
The term "unrecognized gain" has the meaning given to such term by section 1092(a)(3).
(f) Special rules
(1) Denial of capital gains treatment for property identified as part of a hedging transaction
For purposes of this title, gain from any property shall in no event be considered as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset if such property was at any time personal property (as defined in section 1092(d)(1)) identified under subsection (e)(2) by the taxpayer as being part of a hedging transaction.
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