12 U.S.C. § 25b - State law preemption standards for national banks and subsidiaries clarified

Cite as:12 U.S.C. § 25b
Currency:Current through P.L. 116-135 (03/26/2020)

(a) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) National bank

The term "national bank" includes-

(A) any bank organized under the laws of the United States; and

(B) any Federal branch established in accordance with the International Banking Act of 1978 [ 12 U.S.C. 3101 et seq.].

(2) State consumer financial laws

The term "State consumer financial law" means a State law that does not directly or indirectly discriminate against national banks and that directly and specifically regulates the manner, content, or terms and conditions of any financial transaction (as may be authorized for national banks to engage in), or any account related thereto, with respect to a consumer.

(3) Other definitions

The terms "affiliate", "subsidiary", "includes", and "including" have the same meanings as in section 1813 of this title.

(b) Preemption standard

(1) In general

State consumer financial laws are preempted, only if-

(A) application of a State consumer financial law would have a discriminatory effect on national banks, in comparison with the effect of the law on a bank chartered by that State;

(B) in accordance with the legal standard for preemption in the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Barnett Bank of Marion County, N. A. v. Nelson, Florida Insurance Commissioner, et al., 517 U.S. 25 (1996), the State consumer financial law prevents or significantly interferes with the exercise by the national bank of its powers; and any preemption determination under this subparagraph may be made by a court, or by regulation or order of the Comptroller of the Currency on a case-by-case basis, in accordance with applicable law; or

(C) the State consumer financial law is preempted by a provision of Federal law other than title 62 of the Revised Statutes.

(2) Savings clause

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes and section 371 of this title do not preempt, annul, or affect the applicability of any State law to any subsidiary or affiliate of a national bank (other than a subsidiary or affiliate that is chartered as a national bank).

(3) Case-by-case basis

(A) Definition

As used in this section the term "case-by-case basis" refers to a determination pursuant to this section made by the Comptroller concerning the impact of a particular State consumer financial law on any national bank that is subject to that law, or the law of any other State with substantively equivalent terms.

(B) Consultation

When making a determination on a case-by-case basis that a State consumer financial law of another State has substantively equivalent terms as one that the Comptroller is preempting, the Comptroller shall first consult with the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection and shall take the views of the Bureau into account when making the determination.

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