26 U.S.C. § 1092 - Straddles
|Cite as:||26 U.S.C. § 1092|
|Currency:||Current through P.L. 116-158 (08/14/2020)|
(a) Recognition of loss in case of straddles, etc.
(1) Limitation on recognition of loss
(A) In general
Any loss with respect to 1 or more positions shall be taken into account for any taxable year only to the extent that the amount of such loss exceeds the unrecognized gain (if any) with respect to 1 or more positions which were offsetting positions with respect to 1 or more positions from which the loss arose.
(B) Carryover of loss
Any loss which may not be taken into account under subparagraph (A) for any taxable year shall, subject to the limitations under subparagraph (A), be treated as sustained in the succeeding taxable year.
(2) Special rule for identified straddles
(A) In general
In the case of any straddle which is an identified straddle-
(i) paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to positions comprising the identified straddle,
(ii) if there is any loss with respect to any position of the identified straddle, the basis of each of the offsetting positions in the identified straddle shall be increased by an amount which bears the same ratio to the loss as the unrecognized gain with respect to such offsetting position bears to the aggregate unrecognized gain with respect to all such offsetting positions,
(iii) if the application of clause (ii) does not result in an increase in the basis of any offsetting position in the identified straddle, the basis of each of the offsetting positions in the identified straddle shall be increased in a manner which-
(I) is reasonable, consistent with the purposes of this paragraph, and consistently applied by the taxpayer, and
(II) results in an aggregate increase in the basis of such offsetting positions which is equal to the loss described in clause (ii), and
(iv) any loss described in clause (ii) shall not otherwise be taken into account for purposes of this title.
(B) Identified straddle
The term "identified straddle" means any straddle-
(i) which is clearly identified on the taxpayer's records as an identified straddle before the earlier of-
(I) the close of the day on which the straddle is acquired, or
(II) such time as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations.
(ii) to the extent provided by regulations, the value of each position of which (in the hands of the taxpayer immediately before the creation of the straddle) is not less than the basis of such position in the hands of the taxpayer at the time the straddle is created, and
(iii) which is not part of a larger straddle.
A straddle shall be treated as clearly identified for purposes of clause (i) only if such identification includes an identification of the positions in the straddle which are offsetting with respect 1 other positions in the straddle.
(C) Application to liabilities and obligations
Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, rules similar to the rules of clauses (ii) and (iii) of subparagraph (A) shall apply for purposes of this paragraph with respect to any position which is, or has been, a liability or obligation.
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations or other guidance as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this paragraph. Such regulations or other guidance may specify the proper methods for clearly identifying a straddle as an identified straddle (and for identifying the positions comprising such straddle), the rules for the application of this section to a taxpayer which fails to comply with those identification requirements, the rules for the application of this section to a position which is or has been a liability or obligation, methods of loss allocation which satisfy the requirements of subparagraph (A)(iii), and the ordering rules in cases where a taxpayer disposes (or otherwise ceases to be the holder) of any part of any position which is part of an identified straddle.
(3) Unrecognized gain
For purposes of this subsection-
(A) In general
The term "unrecognized gain" means-
(i) in the case of any position held by the taxpayer as of the close of the taxable year, the amount of gain which would be taken into account with respect to such position if such position were sold on the last business day of such taxable year at its fair market value, and
(ii) in the case of any position with respect to which, as of the close of the taxable year, gain has been realized but not recognized, the amount of gain so realized.
(B) Special rule for identified straddles
For purposes of paragraph (2)(A)(ii), the unrecognized gain with respect to any offsetting position shall be the excess of the fair market value of the position at the time of the determination over the fair market value of the position at the time the taxpayer identified the position as a position in an identified straddle.
(C) Reporting of gain
(i) In general
Each taxpayer shall disclose to the Secretary, at such time and in such manner and form as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations-
(I) each position (whether or not part of a straddle) with respect to which, as of the close of the taxable year, there is unrecognized gain, and
(II) the amount of such unrecognized gain.
(ii) Reports not required in certain cases
Clause (i) shall not apply-
(I) to any position which is part of an identified straddle,
(II) to any position which, with respect to the taxpayer, is property described in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 1221(a) or to any position which is part of a hedging transaction (as defined in section 1256(e)), or
(III) with respect to any taxable year if no loss on a position (including a regulated futures contract) has been sustained during such taxable year or if the only loss sustained on such position is a loss described in subclause (II).
(1) In general
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations with respect to gain or loss on positions which are a part of a straddle as may be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section and section 263(g). To the extent consistent with such purposes, such regulations shall include rules applying the principles of subsections (a) and (d) of section 1091 and of subsections (b) and (d) of section 1233.
(2) Regulations relating to mixed straddles
(A) Elective provisions in lieu of section 1233(d) principles
The regulations prescribed under paragraph (1) shall provide that-
(i) the taxpayer may offset gains and losses from positions which are part of mixed straddles-
(I) by straddle-by-straddle identification, or
(II) by the establishment (with respect to any class of activities) of a mixed straddle account for which gains and losses would be recognized (and offset) on a periodic basis,
(ii) such offsetting will occur before the application of section 1256, and section 1256(a)(3) will only apply to net gain or net loss attributable to section 1256 contracts, and
(iii) the principles of section 1233(d) shall not apply with respect to any straddle identified under clause (i)(I) or part of an account established under clause (i)(II).
(B) Limitation on net gain or net loss from mixed straddle account
In the case of any mixed straddle account referred to in subparagraph (A)(i)(II)-
(i) Not more than 50 percent of net gain may be treated as long-term capital gain
In no event shall more than 50 percent of the net gain from such account for any taxable year be treated as long-term capital gain.
(ii) Not more than 40 percent of net loss may be treated as short-term capital loss
In no event shall more than 40 percent of the net loss from such account for any taxable year be treated as short-term capital loss.
(C) Authority to treat certain positions as mixed straddles
The regulations prescribed under paragraph (1) may treat as a mixed straddle positions not described in section 1256(d)(4).
(D) Timing and character authority
The regulations prescribed under paragraph (1) shall include regulations relating to the timing and character of gains and losses in case of straddles where at least 1 position is ordinary and at least 1 position is capital.
(c) Straddle defined
For purposes of this section-
(1) In general
The term "straddle" means offsetting positions with respect to personal property.
(2) Offsetting positions
(A) In general
A taxpayer holds offsetting positions with respect to personal property if there is a substantial diminution of the taxpayer's risk of loss from holding any position with respect to personal property by reason of his holding 1 or more other positions with respect to personal property (whether or not of the same kind).
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